Research and reports
Download the brochure of the IDEAL Final Report 2012
Appendix 2: BGSU Co-Director Project Summary
Appendix 2A: BGSU Climate Survey Results
Appendix 2B: BGSU Climate Survey Results, Part 2
Appendix 2C: BGSU Climate Survey Results, Part 3
Appendix 2D: BGSU Institutional Research Climate Survey Report
Appendix 2E: BGSU Climate Survey Factor Analysis
Appendix 2F: BGSU Blog Participation Invitation
Appendix 2G: BGSU Search Committee Training Presentation
Appendix 5: KSU Co-Director Project Summary
Appendix 5A: KSU Years 1 - 3 Annual Project Reports
Appendix 5B: KSU Site Visit Materials
Appendix 5C: KSU Recommendations for a Presidential Commission on Women
Bias Literacy: A Review of concepts in research on discrimination Ruta Sevo and Daryl E. Chubin (PDF)
The paper offers a quick digest of the evidence for discrimination, especially with reference to women in science and engineering. It explains common terminology and lists relevant legislation and national policy initiatives. Drawing on research in psychology and social science, it summarizes core concepts including: gender schema, accumulative advantage, stereotype threat, implicit bias, glass ceiling, mommy track, occupational segregation, statistical profiling, climate study, and the value of diversity in learning.
Diverse Faculty in Stem Blackwell 2009
In an attempt to address concerns regarding the experiences of academic faculty who are members of often-marginalized groups (e.g., women and ethnic/racial minorities), a climate survey of faculty members at a large public university was developed as part of a larger effort to improve aspects of the policies, procedures, and work climate. Multivariate analysis of variance revealed differences in performance-related variables and equality of treatment for women and racial/ethnic minorities working in the STEM (science, technology, engineering, and mathematics) fields. Women in STEM fields and racial/ethnic minority non-STEM faculty generally reported more negative experiences, while ethnically diverse STEM faculty generally reported more positive experiences. The differential composition of the racial/ethnic minority STEM and non-STEM groups is thought to explain the discrepant findings between these 2 groups.
Diversifying Science and Engineering Leggon 2010
The fields of science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) drive economies worldwide. In such knowledge-based economies, no nation can afford to use its human resources inefficiently and ineffectively. Faculties exert a great deal of influence on the science and engineering (S&E) enterprise insofar as they conduct cutting-edge research as well as educate and train the S&E labor forces. This article focuses on the dynamics of the intersections of race/ethnicity and gender on diversifying S&E faculties in colleges and universities in the United States, and the criticality of disaggregating data to better understand these dynamics. Failure to disaggregate race/ethnicity data by gender, and gender data by race/ethnicity, masks important distinctions among groups. Failure to systematically take into account these distinctions results in policy, programs, practices, and institutions that are both inefficient and ineffective in developing and enhancing the S&E labor forces.
The online version of the bimonthly magazine of the American Association of University Professors (AAUP)
The Faculty Time Divide Jerry A. Jacobs
The time demands of academic life are examined drawing on data from a large national sample of faculty. I outline the divide between full-time faculty, who work long hours irrespective of rank or institution type, and part-time faculty, who work at low pay with little job security, status, recognition or fringe benefits. The expectations of academic life in dual-career couples are hard to reconcile with the demands of parenting. This is a common problem because assistant professors are generally too old to wait until having tenure to have children. The segmentation of academic life into an over-worked core and a marginalized periphery tends to perpetuate gender equality.
Jerry Jacobs is a professor of Sociology at the University of Pennsylvania. This speech was his presidential address to the Eastern Sociological Society in Philadelphia during February 2003. Jacobs examines "the time demands of academic life."
Gender Bias Learning Project (link)
An online gender bias training that teaches you to identify the four basic patterns of gender bias: 1) Prove it Again! 2) The Double Bind, 3) The Matrenl Wall, 4) Gender Wars. The training also provides strategies for handling each type of bias as well.
Gender and Job Satisfation Callister 2006
This study investigates whether gender and the perceptions of department climate affects faculty job satisfaction and intentions to quit (work outcomes) with surveys responses from 308 faculty members in science and engineering fields. The study finds that both gender and department climate are related to work outcomes and that two facets of department climate (affective and instrumental) mediate the relationship between gender and both job satisfaction and intention to quit. This finding suggests that universities can benefit from improving department climate, which then may improve the retention of both male and female faculty, but may have an even greater impact on improving job satisfaction and reducing intentions to quit of female faculty.
Gender Disparity in STEM Disciplines: A Study of Faculty Attrition and Turnover Intentions Xu 2008
This study examines the underrepresentation of women faculty in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) by comparing the intentions of attrition and turnover between genders in Research and Doctoral universities. It is found that the two genders did not differ in their intentions to depart from academia, but women faculty had a significantly higher likelihood to change positions within academia. The indications are that women and men are equally committed to their academic careers in STEM; nonetheless, women's stronger turnover intentions are highly correlated with dissatisfaction with research support, advancement opportunities, and free expression of ideas. The findings suggest that the underrepresentation of women is more convincingly explained by an academic culture that provides women fewer opportunities, limited support, and inequity in leadership, rather than by gender-based differences such as roles in family responsibilities. Changes in academic STEM culture are needed in order to attract more women scientists and narrow the current gender gap.
The Impact of Gender on the Review of the Curricula Vitae of Job Applicants and Tenure Candidates: A National Empirical Study
Rhea E. Steinpreis, Katie A. Anders, and Dawn Ritzke
Published by the University of Wisconsin-Wilwaukee in Sex Roles, Vol. 41, Numbers 7 and 8, 1999, this study shows "...some of the factors that influence outside reviewers and search committee members when they are reviewing curricula vitae, particularly with respect to the gender of the name on the vitae."
Mysterious disappearance of female investigators
Davach Watson, Anja C. Andersen, and Jens Hjorth
This letter from Davach Watson, Anja C. Andersen, and Jens Hjorth of the University of Copenhagen concerns how only three of the twenty-five recipients of the European Young Investigator (EURYI) award are women. It appeared in Volume 436 of Nature, July 14, 2005.
Modeling Pathways Hoegh-Pawley 2010
Women increasingly earn advanced degrees in science, technology, and mathematics (STEM), yet remain underrepresented among STEM faculty. Much of the existing research on this underrepresentation relies on "chilly climate" and "pipeline" theoretical models to explain this phenomenon. However, the extent to which these models follow women's actual career pathways has been undertheorized. Further, alternative metaphors may more aptly describe the career pathways of women STEM faculty. In our broader research project, we examine the ways women's career pathways into STEM faculty positions are similar to and/or different from chilly climate and pipeline models, and if they vary based on race and/or ethnicity. At present, we focus on the ways oral histories and participatory research methods allow us to model the career pathways of women STEM faculty.
A National Analyis of Diversity in Science and Engineering Faculties at Research Universities
Dr. Donna J. Nelson and Diana C. Rogers
National Science Foundation, Division of Science Resources Statistics, Gender Differences in the Careers of Academic Scientists and Engineers: A Literature Review, NSF 03-322, Project Director, Alan I. Rapoport (Arlington, VA 2003).
New Study: Revolving Door Undermines Efforts to Increase Faculty Racial/Ethnic Diversity Report Shows Only Slight Increases in Underrepresented Minority Faculty, Higher Turnover Rates, at California Independent Colleges and Universities
This document summarizes the report
Colleges and universities are struggling to diversify because underrepresented minority faculty are leaving almost as fast as they can be hired. The report, "The Revolving Door for Underrepresented Minority Faculty in Higher Education", was part of The James Irvine Foundation Campus Diversity Initiative, coordinated by the Association of American Colleges and Universities (AAC&U) and Claremont Graduate University (CGU). The report analyzed faculty hiring and retention data at 27 private colleges and universities in California between 2000 and 2004.
This report, the 11th in a series of Congressionally-mandated biennial reports, provides data on the participation of women, minorities, and persons with disabilities in science and engineering education and employment. The data and analyses presented here can be used to track progress, inform the development of policies to increase participation in science and engineering, and evaluate the effectiveness of such policies.
The National Science Foundation central clearinghouse for the collection, interpretation, and analysis of data on scientific and engineering resources, which provides a source of information for policy formulation by other agencies of the Federal Government.
Perceptions of a Chilly Climate Morris 2008
The purpose of this study was to examine how perceptions of a chilly climate differ between students in traditionally female-dominated majors (nursing and education) versus traditionally male-dominated majors (information technology and engineering), and how these perceptions relate to students' intentions to persist or pursue higher education in their chosen field. Students (n = 403) attending a community college completed the 28- item Perceived Chilly Climate Scale (PCCS). The primary research question asked: To what extent can scores on the five subscales of the PCCS be explained by the predictor variable set of gender, ethnicity, age, college major, and intent to leave the field? Canonical correlation analysis indicated that women found the climate chillier than men, non-white students found the climate chillier than white students, younger students perceived the climate chillier than older students, and students in traditionally female-dominated majors perceived the climate chillier than students in traditionally male-dominated majors. Intent to leave the field was not a significant predictor of perceptions of chilly climate.
The Revolving Door for Underrepresented Minority Faculty in Higher Education (PDF)
Jose F. Moreno, Daryl G. Smith, Alma R. Clayton-Pedersen, Sharon Parker, and Daniel Hiroyuki Teraguchi
This research brief from the Jamies Irving Foundation utilizes readily available data from twenty-seven colleges and universities to examine their efforts to enhance faculty racial/ethnic diversity between 2000 and 2004.
Social Organizational Indicators
Drawing on recent survey data of women and men faculty in doctoral-granting departments in computer science, engineering, and science fields in nine highly ranked research universities, this article depicts four key social-organizational features of work, as reported by women and men respondents: frequency of speaking with faculty about research in home unit, ratings of aspects of position and department, characterizations of departmental climates, and levels of interference experienced with work and family. The article points to (a) the ways in which these features of work are consequential for significant status in academic science and engineering; (b) the ways in which experiences with these features vary for women and men faculty; and (c) the ways that institutional practices and policies, reflecting these features, may be improved toward greater equity for the full participation and status of both women and men in academic science and engineering.
The Subtle Side of Discrimination
Joan Williams, a professor of law at American University and director of its program on gender, work and family, discusses how academic women are disadvantaged in subtle ways by work and family roles. This article appeared in the Chronicle of Higher Education April 14, 2003.
Tenure Denied: Cases of Sex Discrimination in Academia
Published by the American Association of University Women Educational Foundation and American Association of University Women Legal Advocacy Fund in October 2004, and edited by Susan K. Dyer. This report "...presents evidence that ...gives a human voice to the concept of sex discrimination in academia. As this report makes clear, professors-turned-litigants are spurred by significantly more than an off-color joke or an occasional slight. Plaintiffs have risked and sometimes sacrificed promising, prestigious academic careers to seek justice for themselves and other women."
Voice Matters, Settles 2007
The current study examined whether women scientists' perceptions of voice moderate the impact of poor workplace climates on job satisfaction and whether effective leadership and mentoring promote women's voice. Survey data were collected from 135 faculty women in the natural sciences. The results from multiple regression analyses indicated that negative (e.g., sexist, hostile) departmental climates were related to lower job satisfaction. However, voice interacted with climate, such that women who perceived that they had more voice in departmental matters showed higher levels of job satisfaction than those who perceived having less voice. An additional regression indicated that mentoring by other women (but not men) in academia and effective departmental leadership were positively related to women's sense of voice. Theoretical and practical implications for the retention and success of women in male-dominated fields are discussed.
Why So Slow?: The Advancement of Women Virginia Valian
Chosen by the National Science Foundation as recommended reading for NSF-ADVANCE grant recipients and participants. Dr. Valian is Professor of Psychology and Linguistics at Hunter College and the CUNY Graduate Center. The book is available for purchase through several online booksellers, and university bookstores. MIT Press 1999.
Chapter 1, "Gender Schemas at Work" (PDF)
Chapter 11, "Women in Academia" (doc), 4 page excerpt of Chapter 11
National Science Foundation Grant Number (HRD 0929907)
This material is based upon work supported by the National Science Foundation under Grant Number (HRD 0929907). Any opinions, findings, and conclusions or recommendations expressed in this material are those of the author(s) and do not necessarily reflect the views of the National Science Foundation.