Face-to-face promotive interaction
Group members must explain, discuss, and teach what they know
- Arrange tables and chairs so that students sit face-to-face
- Choose problems and questions that are not straightforward.
Ill-structured, open-ended, multiple-solutioned, and slightly ambiguous
questions that require further definition by the students are best.
Also assign problems that have surplus information and/or inadequate information
that students can find from other sources. This forces group members
to discuss what the problem is really asking for and what information
they need to solve it.
- Choose problems and questions that benefit from or require
discussion. Questions that probe deep understanding and which require inductive reasoning are preferable for group
work than those that require declarative knowledge or deductive reasoning.
- Require students to explain the views of other members of
- Choose tables of appropriate size and/or a chair arrangement
so that students are close enough to hear each other even when using
- Have group members adopt designated roles.
- Context-rich problems, with their inherent complexity and
lack of precision, tend to promote all these goals.