Jiri G. Safar, M.D.Associate Professor
11100 Euclid Ave.
Cleveland, OH 44106
phone: (216) 368-4609
fax: (216)368-4090 email: Jiri.Safar@Case.edu
Jiri G. Safar is Associate Professor in the Departments of Pathology and Neurology at Case Western Reserve University and Co-Director of the National Prion Disease Pathology Surveillance Center. He is a leader in research on neurodegenerative diseases caused by protein misfolding, such as Creutzfeldt-Jakob Disease, mad cow disease (BSE), Alzheimer’s disease and Parkinsonism.
Dr. Safar earned his MD from the School of Medicine at Charles University, Prague, Czech Republic. He was Board Certified in Neurology, and following his PhD training in biochemistry, and Research Fellowship at the National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke (NINDS), he served as Senior Scientist (1989-1996) in the Laboratory of Central Nervous System Studies at the NINDS Bethesda, Maryland, directed by D.C. Gajdusek (Nobel Prize for Medicine 1976). Here he demonstrated that the difference between normal and pathogenic prion protein lies in conformational transition, and he introduced the novel concept of the folding intermediate as a crucial stage in prion formation. For this groundbreaking research, he received the National Institutes of Health Award of Merit.
Dr. Safar joined the Institute for Neurodegenerative Diseases at the University of California at San Francisco (UCSF), directed by S.B. Prusiner (Nobel Prize for Medicine 1997), and became Associate Professor in the Department of Neurology. During his 12 years at UCSF he expanded his prion research and discovered a new prion protein isoform, and led a research team that developed a preclinical blood test for the detection of human prions.
He is the author of over 188 publications, encompassing a broad range of research in conformational protein chemistry, molecular biology, immunology, and neurodegeneration in human and animal prion diseases. His 1998 Nature Medicine paper is the most quoted original work published on prions in the past 16 years (Cited 740-times, Institute for Scientific Information, 1998-2014).
Dr. Safar holds 27 patents, including one for a method to detect misfolded proteins (Prusiner, S.B., Safar, J. (1999) US Patent # 5,891,641) and another for a device that removes prions from blood, plasma and other liquids (Prusiner, S.B., Safar, J. (2001) US Patent # 6,221,614 B1).
His international status is firmly established: He served on the British Spongiform Encephalopathy Advisory Committee from 1999 to 2003, he is a member of the European Union's Prion Expert Group (Weybridge, Surrey, UK); and a member of the World Health Organization's Advisory Board for Prion Diseases.
Research at Case Western Reserve University
In 2008 Dr. Safar established a new laboratory at the Department of Pathology and developed a strong long-term collaboration with the Department of Physiology and Biophysics, and Department of Neurology.
The research team focuses on:
The Molecular Basis of Prion Disease. To deepen knowledge of the structure of the prion protein in both its normal and pathogenic forms, so that efficient diagnostic tools and therapies can be developed.
The Role of Small Oligomers of Misfolded Proteins in the Pathogenesis of Neurodegeneration. To improve our understanding of the molecular mechanisms governing the phenotypic heterogeneity and progression rates of Alzheimer’s diseases and prion diseases, specifically on different conformers of small oligomers of Amyloid beta and pathogenic prion protein.
Diagnostics. To develop a preclinical test that can diagnose Creutzfeldt-Jakob Disease as well as other prion diseases at the earliest possible time.
Surveillance of Human Prion Diseases. To develop innovative techniques that are crucial in the surveillance of emerging prions and of prions that may cross the species barrier from nonhuman reservoirs like scrapie in sheep, or chronic wasting diseases (CWD) in deer.
Peer Reviewed Journal Articles and Book Chapters
Mays CE, Kim C, Haldiman T, van der Merwe J, Lau A, Yang J, Grams J, Di Bari MA, Nonno R, Telling GC, Kong Q, Langeveld J, McKenzie D, Westaway D, Safar JG. (2014) Prion disease tempo determined by host-dependent substrate reduction. J Clin Invest. 2014 Jan 16. pii: 72241. doi: 10.1172/JCI72241. PMID: 24430187
Haldiman T, Kim C, Cohen Y, Chen W, Blevins J, Qing L, Cohen ML, Langeveld J, Telling GC, Kong Q, Safar JG. (2013) Co-existence of distinct prion types enables conformational evolution of human PrPSc by competitive selection. J Biol Chem. 2013 Oct 11;288(41):29846-61. PMID: 23974118
Kim, C., Haldiman,T., Surewicz, K., Cohen, Y., Chen, W., Blevins, J., Sy, M-S., Cohen, M., Kong, Q., Telling, G.C., Surewicz, W.K., and Safar J.G.. (2012) Small Protease Sensitive Oligomers of PrP(Sc) in Distinct Human Prions Determine Conversion Rate of PrP(C). PLoS Pathog. 2012 Aug;8(8):e1002835. Epub 2012 Aug 2. PMID: 22876179
Kim, C., Haldiman, T., Cohen, Y., Chen, W., Blevins, J., Sy, M-S., Cohen, M., Safar J.G. (2011) Protease-sensitive conformers in broad spectrum of distinct PrPSc structures in sporadic Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease are indicator of progression rate. PLoS Pathogens 7 (9) e1002242.
Stanker L. H., Serban AV, Cleveland E, Hnasko R, Safar JG., and Prusiner SB. (2010) Conformation-dependent high-affinity monoclonal antibodies to prion proteins. J. Immunol. Jul 1;185(1):729-37.
Cali I, Castellani R, Alshekhlee A, Cohen Y, Blevins J, Yuan J, Langeveld JP, Parchi P, Safar JG., Zou WQ, Gambetti P. (2009) Co-existence of scrapie prion protein types 1 and 2 in sporadic Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease: its effect on the phenotype and prion-type characteristics. Brain Oct;132(Pt 10):2643-58, Epub 2009 Sep 4.
Wille H, Shanmugam M, Murugesu M, Ollesch J, Stubbs G, Long JR, Safar JG., Prusiner SB. (2009) Surface charge of polyoxometalates modulates polymerization of the scrapie prion protein. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. Mar 10;106(10):3740-5.
Safar J.G., Lessard, P., Tamgüney, G., Freyman, Y., Deering, C., Letessier, F., Dearmond, S.J., Prusiner, S.B. (2008) Transmission and detection of prions in feces. J Infect Dis. 198(1):81-9.
King, D.J., Safar J.G., Legname, G., Prusiner, S.B. (2007) Thioaptamer Interactions with Prion Proteins: Sequence-specific and Non-specific Binding Sites. J Mol Biol. 369, 1001–1014.
Safar, J.G., Wille, H., Geschwind, M.D., Deering, C., Latawiec, D., Serban, A., King, D.J., Legname, G., Weisgraber, K.H., Mahley, R.W., Miller. B.L., Dearmond, S.J., Prusiner, S.B. (2006) Human prions and plasma lipoproteins. PNAS U S A. 103(30):11312-7.
Lee, I.S., Long, J.R., Prusiner, S.B., Safar, J.G. (2005) Selective precipitation of prions by polyoxometalate complexes. J. Am. Chem. Soc., 127(40):13802-3. Safar, J.G., DeArmond, S., Kociuba, K., Deering, D,, Didorenko, S., Bouzamondo-Bernstein, E., Prusiner, S.B., Tremblay, P. (2005) Prion clearance in bigenic mice. J. Gen. Virol., 86(Pt 10):2913-23.
Safar, J.G., Geschwind, M.D., Deering, C., Didorenko, S., Sattavat, M., Sanchez, H., Serban, A., Vey, M., Baron, H., Giles, K., Miller, B.L., Dearmond, S.J., Prusiner, S.B. (2005) Diagnosis of human prion disease. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U S A. Mar 1;102(9):3501-6
Tremblay, P., Ball, H.L., Kaneko K., Groth, D., Hegde, R.S., Cohen, F.E., DeArmond, S., Prusiner, S.B., Safar, J.G. (2004) Mutant PrPSc conformers induced by a synthetic peptide and various prion strains. J. Virol. 78(4):2088-99.
Safar, J.G., Scott, M., Monaghan, J., Deering, C., Didorenko, S., Vergara, J., Ball, H., Legname, G., Leclerc, E., Solforosi, L., Serban, H., Groth, D., Burton, D.R., Prusiner, S.B., Williamson, R.A. (2002) Measuring prions causing bovine spongiform encephalopathy or chronic wasting disease by immunoassays and transgenic mice. Nature Biotech. 11:1147-50.
Perrier, V., Wallace, A. C., Kaneko, K., Safar, J., Prusiner, S. B., Cohen, F. E. (2000) Mimicking dominant negative inhibition of prion replication through structure-based drug design. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 97: 6073-6078.
Kaneko, K., Ball, H. L., Wille, H., Zhang, H., Groth, D., Torchia, M., Tremblay, P., Safar, J., Prusiner, S. B., DeArmond, S. J., Baldwin, M. A., Cohen, F. E. (2000) A synthetic peptide initiates Gerstmann-Straussler-Scheinker (GSS) disease in transgenic mice. J. Mol. Biol. 295: 997-1007.
Safar, J., Wille, H., Itri, V., Groth, D., Serban, H., Torchia, M., Cohen F.E., Prusiner, S.B. (1998) Eight prion strains have PrPSc molecules with different conformations. Nature Medicine 4: 1157-1165.
Safar, J.G. (2012) Molecular Mechanisms Encoding Quantitative and Qualitative Traits of Prion Strains. In: Prions and Prion Diseases, eds. P. Gambetti and W. Zou, Springer-Verlag, New York, Berlin, Heidelberg, Tokyo, 161-179.
Baron, H., Safar, J., Groth, D., DeArmond, S.J., Prusiner, S.B. (2004) Biosafety issues in prion diseases. In: Prion Biology and Diseases, ed. S.B. Prusiner, Second Edition, Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press, Cold Spring Harbor, 921-960.
Prusiner, S.B., Legname, G., DeArmond, S.J. Cohen, F.E., Safar, J., Riesner, D., Kaneko, K. (2004) Some strategies and methods for the study of prions. In: Prion Biology and Diseases, ed. S.B. Prusiner, Second Edition, Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press, Cold Spring Harbor, 857-920.
Prusiner, S.B., Safar, J., DeArmond, S.J. (2004) Bioassays of prions. In: Prion Biology and Diseases, ed. S.B. Prusiner, Second Edition, Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press, Cold Spring Harbor, 143-186.
Safar, J., Cohen F.E., Prusiner, S.B. (2001) Conformation of the Prion Protein Encodes Quantitative Traits of Prion Strains. In: Prionen und Prionkrankheiten, ed. Beat Horlimann, Detlev Riesner and Hans Kretzschmar, W. de Gruyter, Berlin – New York, 1-620.
Journal Review Articles
Kabir ME, Safar JG. (2014) Implications of prion adaptation and evolution paradigm for human neurodegenerative diseases. Prion. 2014 Jan 8;8(1). PMID: 24401672
Safar, J.G. (2012) Molecular pathogenesis of sporadic prion diseases in man. Prion 2012 Apr 1;6(2). [Epub ahead of print] PMID: 22421210.