My laboratory is interested in resistance to beta-lactam antibiotics and beta-lactamase inhibitors caused by a wide variety of beta-lactamase enzymes such as Class A beta-lactamases (SHV of Klebsiella pneumoniae; TEM of E. coli); Class C beta-lactamases (CMY-2 enzyme) and Class B metallo-beta-lactamases (VIM-2 of Pseudomonas aeruginosa). In addition, we are studying the basis of sulbactam as an antibiotic for Acinetobacter baumannii and the role of metallo-beta-lactamase like enzymes in biofilm formation by a variety of bacteria. We are also developing a novel agent, Bulgecin A, to restore beta-lactam susceptibility in multi-drug resistant Gram negative bacteria. We employ a variety of microbiologic, molecular biologic, epidemiologic and biophysical methods to study resistance phenomena where they occur in the hospital and the laboratory. Through the outpatient ID clinic at the Cleveland VA, we also work in quality improvement and implementation science in areas of antimicrobial stewardship and HIV primary care with our ID fellows.