style='font-size:12.0pt;line-height:150%'> a genetic alteration that produces a change in the DNA code usually resulting in a harmful effect.

Penetrance9:  The probability of a gene or genetic trait being expressed. "Complete" penetrance means the gene or genes for a trait are expressed in all the population who have the genes. "Incomplete" penetrance means the genetic trait is expressed in only part of the population. The percent penetrance also may change with the age range of the population.

Pharmacogenomics9:  The study of the interaction of an individual's genetic makeup and response to a drug.

Phenotype9:  The physical characteristics of an organism or the presence of a disease that may or may not be genetic.

Proteomics9:  The study of the full set of proteins encoded by a genome.


Sequencer8:  An apparatus for determining the order of constituents in a biological polymer, usually DNA or protein.

Trait8:  A genetically determined characteristic or condition.


   8 The American Heritage® Dictionary of the English Language: Fourth Edition. 2000.

    9 Human Genome Program, U.S. Department of Energy, Human Genome Project Information Web site.





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