eference>[51]  Infectious disease is often spread due to infringement upon the environment, such as through deforestation, desertification, dam building, and irrigation.[52] Leaded gasoline continues to be sold in Africa and contains a higher lead content than found elsewhere.[53]  Blood lead levels remain increasingly high in places such as Cape Province, South Africa and Dhaka, Bangladesh and over 100 countries still employ the use of leaded gasoline despite its adverse affects on cognitive development.[54] Industrialized countries, given access to vast amounts of knowledge, have a responsibility to aid developing countries in endeavors to make environments safer.  Instead, hazardous industries are outsourced and the best technological safety measures are not employed.[55]   

 

Conclusion

           

In the United States efforts will continue to be made where technology leads.  Efforts so far have had a tendency towards passive amelioration of aversive situations rather than prevention and ensuring safety.   Until efforts are made to shift the focus from remediation to prevention standards will continue to be set and changed in retrospect and not proactively.  This does a great disservice to public health.

As certain facts have come to light and communities have begun to become involved a new precedent has been set.  Issues such as environmental racism/justice may no longer be ignored.  In 1992 the EPA established the Office of Environmental Justice to monitor activities of industry that disproportionately affect minority communities.  Community members have started to take action and high profile cases such as those taken on by the Tulane Environmental Law Clinic in Louisiana have shed new light on these issues. 

In other parts of the global community different tactics have been employed.  In 1996 in Mexico City, one of the most polluted urban areas in the world, cars were categorized and tagged according to emissions levels and pollution control technology.  Cars must comply with the “A Day Without a Car” law unless a sticker with a 0 is assigned, allowing the car to be driven every day.[56]  In turn, it is hoped that this will prompt people to purchase newer and less polluting cars.

In the future more creative solutions and preventive measures will need to be applied.  The paradigm will need to shift to one in which economic advantages do not trump good practices and good health.  Any change in the biosphere is a change in our (human) habitat as well.  It is in the interest of all to know just what we are “adapting” to.  The environment does not have an infinite ability to sustain us and surely even technology is not more powerful nor awesome than what has always been out there and we are just now discovering.

              

References



[1] Luneburg, W.V. “The Legal Context of Environmental Protection in the United States.”  Talbott and

  Craun, Introduction to Environmental Epidemiology. MI: Lewis Publishers, Inc: 1.

[2] Ibid: 2.

[3] Vigil, K.M.  (1996). Clean Water: An Introduction to Water Quality and Water Pollution Control.  

     Corvallis, OR: Oregon State University Press, 2003: 103.

[4] Markowitz,G.,& Rosner, D. (2002). Deceit and Denial: The Deadly Politics of Industrial Pollution. New   

   York, N.Y.: The Milbank Memorial Fund, 2003: 6.

[5] Carson, R.(1962). Silent Spring. New York, N.Y.: Mariner Books, 2002: 190.

[6] Tilson, H.A., MacPhail, C., & Crofton, K.M. (1996). Setting exposure standards: A decision process.  

   Environmental Health Perspectives, 104 (Suppl 2), 401-405.

[7]  United States. National Research Council. Toxicity Testing: Strategies To Determine 

    Needs and Priorities. Washington, D.C.: National Academy Press, 1984: 118.

[8] Sterner, J., Chair, Environmental Health Advisory Committee. “Report to the Board of Directors of the 

   Manufacturing Chemists’ Association, Inc.”  MCA Papers, March 14, 1967.

[9] Moeller, D.W. (1992). Environmental Health. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 2003: 300.

[10] Luneburg, W.V. “The Legal Context of Environmental Protection in the United States.”  Talbott and

  Craun, Introduction to Environmental Epidemiology. MI: Lewis Publishers, Inc: 14.

[11] Moeller, Environmental Health: 286.

[12] Moeller, Environmental Health: 289.

[13]Moeller, Environmental Health: 288.

[14] Luneberg, The Legal Context of Environmental Protection in the United States: 19.

[15]Moeller, Environmental Health: 284.

[16]Moeller, Environmental Health: 281.

[17] Moeller, Environmental Health: 290.

[18] Schneider, M.J. (2000). Introduction to Public Health. Gaithersburg, MD: Aspen Publishers, Inc., 2000:

     316.

[19] Moeller, Environmental Health: 274.

[20] Dockery, D.W., & Pope III, C.A. “Outdoor Air I:Particulates.”  Steenland and Savitz, Topics in 

    Environmental Epidemiology. NY: Oxford University Press, Inc.: 121.

[21]McMichael, A.J., Kjellström, T., & Smith, K.R. “Environmental Health.” Merson, Black, and Mills,

   International Public Health. MA: Jones and Bartlett Publishers: 414.

[22] Moeller, Environmental Health: 39.

[23] Schneider, Introduction to Public Health: 316.

[24] Ibid.

[25] Dockery, D.W.  (1993).  Epidemiologic study design for investigating respiratory health effects of

    complex air pollution mixtures.  Environmental Health Perspectives, 101 (Suppl 4), 187-191.

[26] Schneider, Introduction to Public Health: 322.

[27] Ibid.

[28] Markowitz,G.,&Rosner, D. (2002). Deceit and Denial: The Deadly Politics of 

    Industrial Pollution. New York, N.Y.: The Milbank Memorial Fund, 2003: 297.

[29] Schneider, Introduction to Public Health: 278.

[30] Schneider, Introduction to Public Health: 330.

[31] Vigil, Clean Water: An Introduction to Water Quality and Water Pollution Control: 82-83.  

[32] Ibid.

[33] Schneider, Introduction to Public Health: 332.

[34] Schneider, Introduction to Public Health: 331.

[35] Schneider, Introduction to Public Health: 361.

[36] Posada de la Paz, M. “Diet and Food Contaminants.”  Steenland and Savitz, Topics in 

    Environmental Epidemiology. NY: Oxford University Press, Inc.: 64.

[37] Ibid: 65.

[38] Carson, Silent Spring: 178.

[39] Schneider, Introduction to Public Health: 353.

[40] Ibid.

[41] Schneider, Introduction to Public Health: 339.

[42] Schneider, Introduction to Public Health: 340.

[43] Franklin Associates. (1997). Characterization of Municipal Solid Waste in the United States:1997 

    Update. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Report No. EPA530-R-98-007. KS: Prairie Village,

    1998: 2.

[44] Schneider, Introduction to Public Health: 346.

[45] Schneider, Introduction to Public Health: 345.

[46] Moeller, Environmental Health: 288.

[47] Moeller, Environmental Health: 290-291.

[48] Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change.  (1996).  Second assessment report: Climate change 1995 

    (Vols.I –III). New York, N.Y.: Cambridge University Press.  McMichael, Kjellström, and Smith: 422.

[49] McMichael, A.J., Kjellström, T., & Smith, K.R., Environmental Health: 381.

[50] McMichael, A.J., Kjellström, T., & Smith, K.R., Environmental Health: 380.

[51] McMichael, A.J., Kjellström, T., & Smith, K.R., Environmental Health: 404.

[52] McMichael, A.J., Kjellström, T., & Smith, K.R., Environmental Health: 434.

[53] McMichael, A.J., Kjellström, T., & Smith, K.R., Environmental Health: 388.

[54] Ibid.

[55] LaDou, J., &Jeyaratnam, J. (1994). Transfer of hazardous industries:Issues and solutions.  Occupational

   Health in National Development. River Edge, N.J.: World Scientific Publications. McMichael,

   Kjellström, and Smith: 412.  

[56] McMichael, A.J., Kjellström, T., & Smith, K.R., Environmental Health: 417.

 

 

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Websites                                                   

 

Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry    www.atsdr.cdc.gov

Center for Health, Environment, and Justice    www.chej.org

Children’s Environmental Health Network    www.cehn.org

Citizens for a Better Environment    www.cbew.org

Earth First    www.earthfirst.org

Environmental Health Perspectives    ehp.niehs.nih.gov

Environmental Law Institute    www.eli.org

Greenpeace International   www.greenpeace.org/international

Laws and Regulations    www.epa.gov/epahome/laws.htm

National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences   www.niehs.nih.gov

National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health   www.cdc.gov/niosh/homepage.html

National Lead Information Center    www.epa.gov/lead/nlic.htm

National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration    www.noaa.gov

New Ideas in Pollution Regulation    www.worldbank.org/nipr/index.htm

Occupational Safety and Health Administration    www.osha.gov

Tulane Environmental Law Clinic    www.tulane.edu/~telc   

United Nations Environment Programme    www.unep.org

United States Geological Survey    www.usgs.gov   

US Environmental Protection Agency    www.epa.gov

USEPA Maximum Contaminant Levels    www.epa.gov/safewater/mcl/html

USEPA Office of Groundwater and Drinking Water    www.epa.gov/ogwdw

USEPA Office of Wastewater   www.epa.gov/owmitnet

Working Group on Community Right to Know   www.crtk.org