tab-stops:list .5in'>·        All known smallpox virus stocks are held under security at the CDC or at the State Research Centre of Virology and Biotechnology in Russia.

 Yellow fever

·        Yellow fever virus can easily be targeted by terrorist.

·        This virus or any other in the group like dengue virus, west Nile virus and other hemorrhagic viruses are transmitted through mosquito bites.

·        Infected mosquitoes can be bred and released in the environment.

·        The transmission contact can be reduced by using body repellants and chemically impregnated mosquito nets.

·        The travelers nets may acquired through the CDC in the USA and any other health offices in developing countries especially in Africa.

The other diseases which can easily be targeted are cholera, typhoid fever and even ebola virus, the dark star of the world’s infectious diseases. Their outbreaks can be controlled through integrated environmental management.

Humanitarian Assistance:      

Whenever possible, kindly contact humanitarian agencies for help and support. They can be involved in provision of aid to the communities, rehabilitation of the infrastructures, health services and socioeconomic developments.

 The following are External Agencies Providing Health and Other Humanitarian Assistance


The United Nation Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs(OCHA)

The United nation plays an important role in providing assistance in response to major humanitarian emergencies, as well as in promoting disaster reduction as part of development plans of countries. It coordinates response to natural or man made disasters, and promotes action to improve disaster prevention and preparedness.

Contact website:

World Health Organization (WHO)

It is responsible for coordinating International Health action. The Pan American Health Organization (PAHO) and other WHO regional offices acts as focal points for national health authorities and donors after disasters in their respective areas WHO can provide technical cooperation in assessing health related needs, coordinating international health assistance, managing the inventory and distribution of relief supplies, carrying out epidemiology surveillance and disease control measures, assessing environmental health, managing health services, formulating cost estimates for assistance projects, and procuring humanitarian supplies. WHO and its regional offices can provide limited material assistance by reprogramming the country development activities or from other sources.

Contact website:

United Nations Children’s Fund (UNICEF)

Unicef works very closely with United Nation agencies and Non governmental organizations. Its emergency intervention focus on provision of health care, nutrition, water supply and sanitation, basic education and the psychosocial rehabilitation of traumatized children.

Contact website:

 World Food Program (WFP)

It coordinates with others agencies to provide and ship food to victims all over the world. It has substantial resources to meet basic disaster food requirements.

Contact website:

Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations(FAO)

Provides technical cooperation in long time agricultural development. It works to prevent food shortages when there is wide spread crop failures or disasters. Through the global information and early warning system, it issues monthly reports on world food situation and focusing on countries which could be facing disasters.

Contact website:


This include the European Community Humanitarian Office (ECHO)

Coordinates and oversee humanitarian activities in non member country during disasters. Provides important part of the operating budgets for humanitarian assistance for specialized UN agencies and is the second largest donor to world food program.

Contact website:

Among others like Organization of America States, and Center for Coordination for the Prevention of Natural Disasters in Central America (CEPREDENAC) website:


Contact websites: , , 





(1)   Lisa Bunosky public health management and natural disasters MPHP439 on line text book  ( )

2.George Duncan Maritime disasters of World war ll contact web:

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5.      Simkin, T and Siebert, L, 1995 Volcanoes of the world: Geoscience press,Inc.,p.165-176.

6.    Earth and Volcanic eruptions p.1-6.

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 8.     Butman AM. Responding to the mass casualty incident. A guide for EMS personnel.Akron, Ohio: Emergency training; 1982.

 9.       Wetterhall SF, Noji EK.Surveillance and epidemiology. In: Noji EK, ed. The public health consequences of disasters. New York: Oxford university Press; 1997.

10.    Center for Disease Control. Famine affected, refugee, and displaced populations: recommendations for public health issues. MMWR Morbidity and mortality Weekly Report !992; 41(RR-13): 1-76.