case western reserve university



Evidence Based Medicine

Information on EVIDENCE BASED MEDICINE can be found in many libraries as well as at a number of reliable internet resources.

From this web page, you will find reliable sources in the health sciences.

EVIDENCE-BASED MEDICINE is defined as the process of systematically finding, appraising, and using contemporaneous research findings as the basis for clinical decisions. Evidence-based medicine asks questions, finds and appraises the relevant data, and harnesses that information for everyday clinical practice. Evidence-based medicine follows four steps: formulate a clear clinical question from a patient's problem; search the literature for relevant clinical articles; evaluate (critically appraise) the evidence for its validity and usefulness; implement useful findings in clinical practice. The term "evidence based medicine" (no hyphen) was coined at McMaster Medical School in Canada in the 1980's to label this clinical learning strategy, which people at the school had been developing for over a decade. (From BMJ 1995;310:1122)

All of the bold-face terms may be used for subject searching in EuclidPLUS (as a MeSH: Medical Subject Heading Search) or in PubMed. All of the definitions for the bold-face terms are from MeSH, Medical Subject Headings from the U. S. National Library of Medicine.

If you need more information, please contact Reference at the Allen at 216.368.3640, or at the Health Center at 216.368.3218, or send us an email, (

Print Resources

Readily available books and journals are good starting places for research on a topic. Dictionaries and textbooks are especially helpful. Please check the items listed on Print Resources for EVIDENCE-BASED MEDICINE available at Case.

Library Catalogs

Catalogs are lists of materials an institution owns or to which it has access. At Case Western Reserve University, the catalog is EuclidPLUS. EuclidPLUS includes information about print and electronic materials, both monographic and serial.

Other catalogs are:

    OhioLINK Library Catalog >>
    Library of Congress >>
    The National Library of Medicine's LocatorPlus >>
    WorldCat >>

Research Databases

Databases are collections of data organized for rapid search and retrieval by a computer. In libraries they are primarily bibliographic in nature, indexing journals, meetings and sometimes books. An example of a database is PubMed.

Other databases are:

    PubMed Clinical Queries >>
    You may select from the following filters to limit your retrieval.

    Clinical Study Category This specialized search query with built-in search research methodology filters is intended for clinicians. Four study categories or filters are provided: therapy, diagnosis, etiology, and prognosis. Two emphasis categories or filters are provided: sensitive search (broad) - includes relevant articles but probably some less relevant and specific search (narrow) - more precise articles, with less retrieval. See the filter table for details.

    Systematic Reviews This feature is provided to help health professionals locate systematic reviews and similar articles. It combines your search term(s) with citations identified as systematic reviews, meta-analyses, reviews of clinical trials, evidence-based medicine, consensus development conferences, and guidelines. Citations from journals specializing in clinical review studies are also included. The resulting retrieval can be further refined using PubMed's Limits e.g., English language. (Note: outside of the Clinical Queries screen, this subset can be combined directly with other search terms using AND systematic [sb]. For example, lyme disease AND systematic [sb].) Systematic Reviews uses a customized search strategy.

    Medical Genetic Searches The Medical Genetics Searches were developed in conjunction with the staff of GeneReviews: Genetic Disease Online Reviews at GeneTests, University of Washington, Seattle. See the filter table for details.

    EBM Reviews - ACP Journal Club >>
    The ACP Journal Club Collection consists of two journals: ACP Journal Club, a publication of the American College of Physicians, and Evidence-Based Medicine, a joint publication with the British Medical Journal Group.
    EBM Reviews - Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials >>
    CCTR (formerly Cochrane Controlled Trials Register) is a bibliographic database of definitive controlled trials. These controlled trials have been identified by the distinguished contributors to the Cochrane Collaboration. They and others, as part of an international effort to search the world's health care journals (and other sources of information) systematically, have combined results to create an unbiased source of data for systematic reviews. Because it has been shown that existing bibliographic databases are inadequate for the identification of all relevant studies, the Cochrane Collaboration embarked upon this formidable task in co-operation with the National Library of Medicine (NLM) in Washington, DC (USA) who produce MEDLINE and Reed Elsevier of Amsterdam (the Netherlands) who produce EMBASE.
    EBM Reviews - Database of Abstracts of Reviews of Effects >>
    DARE is a Full Text database containing critical assessments of systematic reviews from a variety of medical journals. DARE is produced by the expert reviewers and information staff of the National Health Services' Centre for Reviews and Dissemination (NHS CRD) at the University of York, England, and consists of structured abstracts of systematic reviews from all over the world. DARE records cover topics such as diagnosis, prevention, rehabilitation, screening, and treatment.
    EBM Reviews Full Text - Cochrane DSR, ACP Journal Club and DARE >>
    This multifile database allows you to search simultaneously the three Evidence Based Medicine Reviews databases: ACP Journal Club (ACP), Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews (CDSR), and Database of Abstracts of Reviews of Effects (DARE). Note that Mapping is not available in Multifile databases. For more information on Ovid's Multifile and Deduping capabilities, refer to the Features section of the Documentation area at Ovid Technologies homepage at
    EBM Reviews - Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews >>
    The Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews (COCH) includes the full text of the regularly updated systematic reviews of the effects of healthcare prepared by The Cochrane Collaboration. The reviews are presented in two types:

    Complete reviews - Regularly updated Cochrane Reviews, prepared and maintained by Collaborative Review Groups

    Protocols - Protocols for reviews currently being prepared (all include an expected date of completion). Protocols are the background, objectives and methods of reviews in preparation.

    ISI Web of Science Citation Databases >>
    For additional databases, please check the All Research Databases at Case >> page.

Electronic Resources at Case

CHSL provides information on Electronic Books. >>

There are many links to electronic journals from the resources listed in Library Catalogs and Databases. >>

CHSL also has links to collections of Electronic Journals. >>

Government Resources
    Evidence Based Medicine and Health Technology Assessment >> from the U. S. National Library of Medicine - you will need to scroll down the page.
    National Guideline Clearinghouse >> is a public resource for evidence-based clinical practice guidelines. NGC is sponsored by the Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality (AHRQ), U. S. Department of Health and Human Services, in partnership with the American Medical Association and the American Association of Health Plans.
    Evidence-based Practice >> from the Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality >>.

Web Resources
    The Cochrane Collaboration >>
    The Canadian Cochrane Network and Centre >>
    Evidence Based Medicine>> from Johns Hopkins University.
    The Evidence-based Medicine Resource Center >> from the New York Academy of Medicine in partnership with the Evidence-based Medicine Committee of the American College of Physicians, New York Chapter.
    McMaster University Evidence-based Practice Center >>
    NHS Centre for Reviews and Dissemination >>

Other Information
    Finding Health Sciences Information >>
    This page is maintained by the Cleveland Health Sciences Library.
    OhioLINK & ALAO Instruction Clearinghouse >>
    There are links to online tutorials and help pages available here.
    Uniform Requirements for Manuscripts Submitted to Biomedical Journals: Writing and Editing for Biomedical Publication >>
    This is the Vancouver style for preparing manuscripts.