formation, principles of phylogenetic inference, biogeography, evolutionary rates, evolutionary convergence, homology, Darwinian medicine, and conceptual and philosophic issues in evolutionary theory.
Offered as ANTH 225, BIOL 225, GEOL 225, HSTY 225, and PHIL 225.


HSTY 234. France and Islam (3)
This seminar examines French encounters with the Muslim world from the Middle Ages to the present. Over the last millennium, France has viewed Saracens, Moriscos, Turks, Berbers, and Arabs with admiration and fear, disdain and incomprehension. Between the eleventh and thirteenth centuries, French soldiers battled in the Holy Land; for several hundred years after that, France and the Ottoman Empire exchanged diplomats, traders and slaves. The colonial occupation of Algeria that began in 1830 ended violently in 1962. By then, the empire that struck back had also come home through large waves of immigration. Today, the social and economic status, religious affiliation, political significance and cultural impact of French citizens of North African descent are the subject of burning national debate. Taking a long view on Franco-Muslim relations, the course will explore such topics as the Crusades, Mediterranean piracy and captivity, Napoleon’s Egyptian campaign, the Algerian War of Independence, the “veil affair,” riots in the suburbs of Paris and World Cup soccer.
Offered as ETHS 234, HSTY 234.
SAGES Dept Seminar


HSTY 238. Jews in the Modern World (3)
Investigation of the impact of modernity on the Jewish community. In particular the course will examine the influence of the Emancipation and Enlightenment on the social situation of the Jews in Europe and America and the corresponding changes in Judaic religion, philosophy, social structure, and culture. Attention will be paid to the creation of a modern Jewish identity in the secular culture of the post-Modern world.
Offered as HSTY 238, JDST 231, and RLGN 231.


HSTY 240. The Body in History (3)
This course examines the changing experiences of human bodies in history. It shows how science and culture have shaped diverse human experiences which often appear immutable, including sexuality, eating, race, and sickness.


HSTY 243. The Age of Prozac: Social and Cultural Aspects of Depression (3)
Although often experienced as an intensely individual, private, and painfully isolated affliction, depression has profound social and cultural dimensions. This course will neglect neither biological (neurochemical or genetic) perspectives, nor personal or psychological aspects, but will emphasize perspectives derived from history, anthropology, and sociology. While there may be tangential attention to bi-polar disorder (“manic depression”), the emphasis will be on unipolar depression. The course will conclude with an in-depth exploration of the rise of pharmaceutical treatments.


HSTY 246. People and the Land in Pre-Modern Europe (3)
This course explores the relationship between the peoples of Europe and their environments as Europe changed from a backwater of the Roman Empire into the seat of a number of globe-spanning empires. It examines how Europeans changed the land over time in order to derive a subsistence, produce profit, and, later, to fuel the growth and power of early modern state. The course will delve into the ways that Europeans thought about nature and conceived of their place in it. It will also explore how the environment itself influenced the courses of European societies; how climate and disease, animals and energy sources affected population growth, industrial activity, and even legal systems. As European powers sent their conquerors and colonists across the globe, they carried with them a tradition of thinking about, and interacting with, the environment in ways that had dramatic consequences for the world beyond Europe, and this course investigates whence this tradition came.


HSTY 250. Issues and Methods in History (3)
A methodological introduction to historical research. Students use a variety of approaches to interpret and study historical problems. Specific topics and instructors normally vary from year to year.


HSTY 252A. Introduction to African-American Studies (3)
This course is designed to introduce students to the study of Black History, cultures, economics, and politics. Students will learn about the development of the field by exploring theoretical questions, methodological approaches, and major themes that have shaped the study of black people, primarily in the U.S. context. This is a seminar-style, discussion-based course that emphasizes critical analysis and expository writing.
Offered as ETHS 252A and HSTY 252A.
Global & Cultural Diversity


HSTY 253. Technology and American Culture (3)
American technology is a cultural phenomenon, a part of, rather than separate from, more general concerns. Examines technology through historical writings, literature, images, and both material and popular culture.


HSTY 254. The Holocaust (3)
History of racism in European society from 18th to 20th century; investigation, from perspectives of history, psychology, literature, philosophy, and religion, of how bureaucracy could exterminate six million Jews; responses of individuals, groups, institutions, and nations to deliberate extermination of nearly a whole people.
Offered as HSTY 254 and RLGN 254.
Global & Cultural Diversity


HSTY 255. Economic History of the United States (3)
The growth of the American economy from the colonial period to the present. Competing explanations of economic growth; significant attention to the political and legal environment in which the U.S. economy developed; “lessons” of past experience for contemporary policy; some attention to inequality and the changing distribution of wealth and income.
Offered as ECON 255 and HSTY 255.


HSTY 256. American Political History (3)
From the origins of American politics in the colonial period to the present. The Revolution and Constitutional debate; presidential politics and leadership; voters and voting patterns; Congress and the courts. Emphasis both on the ideas that animated American politics and on the relation of politics to society.


HSTY 257. Immigrants in America (3)
Immigration to America has constantly reshaped the way the nation views itself. This course examines the overall history of immigration to the United States, but places that movement within a global context. It also pays particular attention to the roles that policy and technology have played in controlling or defining immigration to America.


HSTY 258. History of Southern Africa (3)
A survey of southern Africa from about 1600. Topics include the social structure of pre-colonial African societies, the beginnings of European settlement, the rise of Shaka, the discovery of minerals and the development of industry, Zimbabwe’s guerrilla war and independence, and the rise and apparent demise of apartheid.
Offered as ETHS 258 and HSTY 258.
Global & Cultural Diversity


HSTY 260. U.S. Slavery and Emancipation (3)
Begins with the African encounter with Europeans during the emergence of the modern slave trade. Students are introduced to the documents and secondary literature on the creation and maintenance of slavery, first in colonial America, and then in the United States. The course concludes with the destruction of slavery.
Offered as ETHS 260 and HSTY 260.
Global & Cultural Diversity


HSTY 261. African-American History 1865-1945
Explores the fashioning of a modern African-American culture between emancipation and the end of World War II. Emergence of a northern-based leadership, the challenge of segregation, emergence of bourgeois culture, the fashioning of racial consciousness and black nationalism, the shift from a primarily southern and rural population to one increasingly northern and urban, the creation and contours of a modern African-American culture, the construction of racial/gender and racial/class consciousness.
Offered as ETHS 261 and HSTY 261.
Global & Cultural Diversity


HSTY 262. African-American History Since 1945 (3)
Completes the three-term sequence of the African-American history survey (although the first two courses are not prerequisites for this course). Explores some of the key events and developments shaping African-American social, political, and cultural history since 1945.
Offered as HSTY 262 and ETHS 262.
Global & Cultural Diversity


HSTY 265. History of the Professions (3)
Professions are one of the central occupational structures of modern society. This course teaches about the historical context of the professions that many students will seek to join. It covers the three classic “learned” professions of clergy, law, and medicine, and newer ones such as accountancy, engineering, management, and nursing. It is comparative and interdisciplinary, examining the liberal, small-state, contexts of England and the United States, and the contrasting strong-state contexts of France, Germany, and Russia, applying theory from sociology, anthropology, and gender studies.


HSTY 266. The Engineer in America (3)
History, culture, politics, ethical considerations, and gender issues of the engineering profession in the United States.


HSTY 268. Colonialism in Africa (3)
Examines the immense social and cultural changes which took place in Africa as a result of colonial occupations, in the period roughly from 1880 to 1965. It is organized around three major rubrics which were central to the colonial experience: the spread of Christianity, economic forces which led to new forms of labor, and the growth of nationalist resistance.
Offered as ETHS 268 and HSTY 268.
Global & Cultural Diversity


HSTY 270. Introduction to Gender Studies (3)
This course introduces women and men students to the methods and concepts of gender studies, women’s studies, and feminist theory. An interdisciplinary course, it covers approaches used in literary criticism, history, philosophy, political science, sociology, anthropology, psychology, film studies, cultural studies, art history, and religion. It is the required introductory course for students taking the women’s studies major. Recommended preparation: ENGL 150 or USFS 100.
Offered as ENGL 270, HSTY 270, PHIL 270, RLGN 270, and WGST 201.
Global & Cultural Diversity


HSTY 272. Sports in America: From Play to Profit (3)
This course reviews the history of sports in America from the colonial period to the present. It gives particular attention to the evolution of sports as a major business and to the roles of gender, ethnicity, and race in the history of America sport, as well as to the emergence of sport as a major defining characteristic of America life and society.


HSTY 282. Modern China (3)
Beginning with the Opium Wars, we review the historical development of intellectual discourse, public reaction, and political protest in late Imperial and Republican China from the early 19th century to the communist revolution in 1949. In contrast to the conventional description of China from a Western point of view, this course tries to explain the emergence of modern China in the context of its intellectual, political, and socio-economic transformation as experienced by Chinese in the 19th and 20th century. By discussing the influence of the West, domestic rebellions, and political radicalism, we examine how the Chinese state and society interacted in search for modernization and reforms, how these reforms were continued during the Republican period, and to what extent historical patterns can be identified in China’s present-day development.
Global & Cultural Diversity


HSTY 284. Daily Life in Imperial China (3)
This course is an interdisciplinary study of Chinese society using methodological approaches from the fields of social, cultural, economic, and art history. In order to explore the fabric of society in Imperial China (from the beginning to the early 20th century) in a creative, interactive way--including folk customs, life at the court, in city and countryside, religious activities, gender roles, material culture, consumption, entertainment, and social hierarchies--we use the excellent Chinese collection in the Cleveland Museum of Art and various visual aids such as slides and CD-ROMs in the classroom.
Offered as ASIA 284 and HSTY 284.
Global & Cultural Diversity


HSTY 285. Modern Japan (3)
This course introduces students to the many changes that characterize the social, political, economic, and intellectual history of modern Japan from the mid-19th century to the present. We discuss to what extent the Meiji state was built upon Japan’s “traditional” heritage, how modernization and Western influence were implemented in and perceived by society, and which factors led the government to adopt extreme imperialist and militarist policies in the early 20th century. Looking at the emergence of a new Japan after World War II, we focus on employment structures, mass culture, urbanization, gender roles, and social patterns in order to understand the transformation of modern Japanese society.
Global & Cultural Diversity


HSTY 287. State, War, Drugs, and Coffee in Colombia: History of Modern Colombia (3)
This course will analyze the major forces that have shaped Colombian history from the 19th century to the present. Colombia is one of the largest and most fascinating countries in Latin America. It has been intricately linked to the U.S. market as a major coffee producer and, more recently, as a major supplier of illicit drugs. Colombia has always been one of the wealthier Latin American countries, and it has a high degree of electoral democracy. Paradoxically, however, Colombia has also experienced rather high levels of regionalism and political violence. This course seeks to explore the history of these paradoxes. It will situate Colombia’s contemporary conflicts within a larger historical perspective.
Offered as ETHS 287 and HSTY 287.
Global & Cultural Diversity


HSTY 298. Departmental Seminar (3)
The Department of History Departmental Seminar. A topical course, emphasizing disciplinary forms of writing, it is recommended for students before the end of their junior years. The class will advance the goals of SAGES within the disciplinary context of history by focusing on close readings of texts, analytical writing, and intensive seminar-style classroom discussions.
SAGES Dept Seminar


HSTY 299. Topics in History (3)
Subject matter will vary with instructor but will focus on some particular topic or historical approach. Course description available from departmental office.


HSTY 302. Ancient Greece: Archaic, Classical, and Hellenistic Periods (3)
The rise of Hellenic thought and institutions from the eighth to the third centuries B.C., the rise of the polis, the evolution of democracy at Athens, the crises of the Persian and Peloponnesian Wars, fifth century historiography, the growth of individualism, and the revival of monarchy in the Hellenistic period.
Offered as CLSC 302 and HSTY 302.


HSTY 303. History of the Early Church: First Through Fourth Centuries (3)
Explores the development of the diverse traditions of Christianity in the Roman Empire from the first through the fourth centuries C.E. A variety of New Testament and extra-Biblical sources are examined in translation. Emphasis is placed on the place of Christianity in the larger Roman society, and the variety of early Christian ideals of salvation, the Church, and Church leadership.
Offered as HSTY 303 and RLGN 373.


HSTY 304. Ancient Rome: Republic and Empire (3)
Growth and development of the Roman state from the unification of Italy in the early third century B.C. to the establishment of the oriental despotism under Diocletian and Constantine. The growth of empire in the Punic Wars, the uncertain steps toward an eastern hegemony, the crisis in the Republic from the Gracchi to Caesar, the new regime of Augustus, the transformation of the leadership class in the early Empire, and the increasing dominance of the military over the civil structure.
Offered as CLSC 304 and HSTY 304.


HSTY 306. History Museums: Theory and Reality (3)
This course is an intensive summer internship (10 hours per week) at the Western Reserve Historical Society, complemented by extensive readings in museum/archival theory and public historical perception. It is designed both to introduce students to museum/archival work and to compare theoretical concepts with actual museum situations. Interns will be assigned a specific project within one of the Society’s curatorial or administrative divisions, but will have the opportunity to work on ancillary tasks throughout the Historical Society’s headquarters in University Circle.
Offered as HSTY 306 and HSTY 406.


HSTY 307. Development of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering (3)
The development of chemical ideas; theories of matter, composition, structure, and reaction; the application of chemistry and chemical theory from antiquity to the 20th century; all considered in social context.


HSTY 308. Italian Renaissance 1350-1600 (3)
Political and cultural history of Renaissance Italy. Florence, Venice, Rome, and the development of Humanism. Extensive reading of major writers such as Machiavelli.


HSTY 309. Reformation Europe, 1500-1650 (3)
Origins and development of Protestantism, the Catholic Counter-Reformation, and the interaction between secular power and religious identity in Christian Europe.
Offered as HSTY 309 and RLGN 374.


HSTY 310. The French Revolutionary Era (3)
Causes, progress, and results of the internal transformation of France from 1789 to 1815; impact of revolutionary ideas on other European and non-European societies.


HSTY 311. Seminar: Modern American Historiography (3)
This seminar examines the approaches that professional historians of the United States have taken to the writing of American history in the past fifty years, with emphasis on changes in historical concerns, master debates among historians, and contemporary interests. Topics covered include national politics and government, economic development, social history, the history of ethnicity, race, and gender, and foreign policy and international relations. Each student will read widely and will prepare a series of reports on selected books and authors.
Offered as HSTY 311 and HSTY 411.


HSTY 312. European Legal History (3)
Examines the development of the legal systems of Central and Western Europe since the reception of Roman law. Focus will fall upon the alliance of Roman law and the absolutist state, the rise of bureaucratic absolutism, codification and the rise of liberal constitutional and legal thought, the Central European Rechtsstaat tradition, the historical school and legal positivism, the differing trajectories of development of bars in private practice, and the shape of modern European civil law systems, all in their social contexts.


HSTY 314. Impostors in Early Modern Europe (3)
Religious persecution during the early modern period (16th-18th centuries) compelled Jews to attend Mass, Muslims to baptize their children and Protestants of count Hail Marys on a rosary. European exploration of Asia, Africa and the Americas inspired an Englishman to pass himself off as Taiwanese and an African to present himself as a European. The choice between marriage and a convent led one woman to cut off her hair, sew her skirt into britches and make herself into a conquistador in Peru. In pursuit of social mobility, courtiers remade themselves to suit the conventions of the court. Posing, passing and pretending, these early modern Europeans crossed lines of religion, gender, race and class. Today we might call some of these figures impostors but praise others as self-made men and women. What was the difference between lying and self-fashioning in early modern Europe? What forces and phenomena compelled people to remake themselves? Was the early modern period the age of dissimulation? This course explores these questions by reading memoirs, handbooks, inquisitorial documents and plays from the period of light of contemporary theoretical literature.


HSTY 315. Heresy and Dissidence in the Middle Ages (3)
Survey of heretical individuals and groups in Western Europe from 500 - 1500 A.D., focusing on popular rather than academic heresies. The development of intolerance in medieval society and the problems of doing history from hostile sources will also be explored.
Offered as HSTY 315 and RLGN 315.


HSTY 318. History of Black Women in the U.S. (3)
Chronologically arranged around specific issues in black women’s history organizations, participation in community and political movements, labor experiences, and expressive culture. The course will use a variety of materials, including autobiography, literature, music, and film.
Offered as ETHS 318, HSTY 318, and WGST 318.


HSTY 319. The Crusades (3)
This course is a survey of the history of the idea of “crusade,” the expeditions of Western Europeans to the East known as crusades, the Muslim and Eastern Christian cultures against which these movements were directed, as well as the culture of the Latin East and other consequences of these crusades.
Offered as HSTY 319 and RLGN 319.


HSTY 322. Feminist Theory, Women’s History, Gender History (3)
A reading seminar designed to expose students to current theory and methods in feminist history, as well as feminist scholarship more generally. It includes a variety of topics representative of interests and concerns shared by feminist historians, as well as a range of methodological approaches and theoretical debates. The course aims to impart a sense of the ways in which feminist theory has been applied to and has transformed historical scholarship.
Offered as HSTY 322, WGST 322, HSTY 422, and WGST 422.


HSTY 325. U.S. Politics, Culture, and Society: 1787-1865 (3)
Explores politics, culture, and society in the United States between the War for Independence and the Civil War. Topics include the transformation of political ideology, the political process, capitalist development in cities, factories, and the countryside, and changing dynamics of class, race, and gender in both the North and South.


HSTY 327. Comparative Environmental History (3)
Environmental history is the study of how humans have influenced the environments around them and how the environment itself has influenced the course of human societies. This course provides students with the skill to identify and analyze these interactions. It introduces course participants to the main themes of environmental history literature and the driving questions guiding environmental history research by examining case studies drawn around the globe, including Pre-Columbian America, Medieval Japan, Colonial Africa, and Modern Germany. This course will help course participants recognize the important patterns and developments that have led to present day human-environmental relationships.
Offered as HSTY 327 and HSTY 427.


HSTY 329. Museums and Globalization (3)
Museums are everywhere contested spaces today. Historically designed as agents of public education and community formation, now they are centers of public controversy on a global scale. From Paris to Nairobi museums figure in conflicts over urban redevelopment, national identity, cultural diversity, and global tourism. Questions we will consider in this course: what are the fundamental features of museums as institutions; how have they been structured; what ties have linked them to wider national and international communities, political, economic and social concerns; how have they used resources such as research, collecting, buildings, display technologies, and geographic location to carry out these functions; how do museums in Asia, Africa the Middle East and Latin America figure in the current international contention over the issue of heritage: This is an innovative course offered jointly by JHU and CWRU using web-based technologies that allow students to collaborate on projects and access museums across the globe through internet resources with “visitors” from other countries participating on-line and students buildings web links for their presentations and written projects. This is an innovative course using web-based technologies that allow discussions between students and “visitors” from other countries, as well as student collaboration on projects and access to museums across the globe through internet resources. Offered as HSTY 329 and HSTY 429.


HSTY 332. European Diplomacy in the Age of Nationalism: 1789-1945 (3)
Presents a broad interpretation of the development of the international system in Europe between the French Revolution of 1789 and the end of the European era in 1945. It explains why and how the closed European state system at the beginning of the nineteenth century evolved into an international transcontinental system by the early twentieth century. Approved SAGES Departmental Seminar.
SAGES Dept Seminar


HSTY 334. History of 19th Century Germany (3)
Examines the political, social, economic, and cultural history of Germany from the late eighteenth century to 1914. Explores the intellectual and social background to the rise of German liberalism and nationalism, the struggle with bureaucratic absolutism, the revolutions of 1848, industrial capitalism and the emergence of a class society, unification under Bismarck, the role of the state, culture, religion, and changes of mentality, the development of mass politics, and the coming of World War I.


HSTY 335. History of 20th Century Germany (3)
Examines the tumultuous history of Germany from 1914 to the unification of the two Germanys in 1989-1990. From the totalizing and traumatic experience of World War I, through a failed revolution, the republican experiment of Weimar, the National Socialist dictatorship under Hitler and the divided Germany suspended between the superpowers, to the newly unified democratic Federal Republic. Examines the ways in which Germans have tried to reconcile the state to their society, economy, and individual lives.


HSTY 336. The Struggle for Justice in Latin America (3)
This course looks at how indigenous peoples, women, students, workers, peasants, and Afro-Latin Americans struggled for justice in Latin America. It will study how notions of justice have changed from colonial times to the present. It will also examine how different sectors of Latin American society understood the meaning of justice and how that understanding evolved through time. This class seeks to familiarize students with the history of the idea of justice in Latin America. At the end of this course students will understand the complex intellectual and political differences behind Latin America’s apparent chaotic and tumultuous political history. Second, it seeks to develop students’ critical thinking by examining how an abstract term, such as justice, changes across time and space.
Offered as ETHS 336 and HSTY 336.
Global & Cultural Diversity


HSTY 342. Water (3)
This seminar will explore the history of the meaning of water--that is, the social, cultural, and/or political significance placed on water by individuals and governments in different times and places. It will also examine how humans have acted upon water, and how it has acted upon humans, with great consequences for human life. This seminar will look at the history of water in the context of science, technology and society; public health; political science; and environmental history. Case studies will be drawn from a wide chronological and geographical range; from the ancient world to Renaissance Italy, nineteenth century India, modern Britain, Egypt, and the U.S. The course provides a wide perspective on the themes of the history of human-water interactions, but will also focus closely on some critical cases. Seminar participants will write a research paper on the topic of their choice in the environmental history of water.
Offered as: HSTY 342, HSTY 442, POSC 342, POSC 442.


HSTY 344. Origins of the British Empire 1450-1750 (3)
How did early modern England come to rule an empire upon which the sun never set? What compelled individuals to seek their fortunes abroad, planting the flag of St. George in the outlying areas of the archipelago and halfway across the globe? This course examines the troubled birth of an empire and of a place called “Britain” at the same time. This seminar provides history majors with an experience of working with early modern primary documents of a wide variety; essays and book chapters will be paired with documents from early modern England itself. How do documents, images, and quantitative analyses help historians explain how the British Empire came into being?
Offered as HSTY 344 and HSTY 444.


HSTY 348. History of Modern Political and Social Thought (3)
This course explores the responses of philosophers, economic theorists, culture critics, and public policy makers to changes in western society wrought by industrialization by focusing on their concerns with technological change.
Offered as HSTY 348 and POSC 348.


HSTY 351. Colonial America 1607-1763 (3)
The formative years of American society and culture. Slavery and racism, expansionism, regionalism, the family, pluralism, sense of mission, and republican ideology.


HSTY 352. The Era of the American Revolution, 1763 - 1815 (3)
The causes and consequences of the American Revolution, the formation of the American Republic, and the early years of the new nation. Federalism and republicanism as theories and in application, and the role of the Americans’ experience in the age of democratic revolutions.


HSTY 353. Women in American History I (3)
The images and realities of women’s social, political, and economic lives in early America. Uses primary documents and biographers to observe individuals and groups of women in relation to legal, religious, and social restrictions.
Offered as HSTY 353, WGST 353, and HSTY 453.


HSTY 354. Women in American History II (3)
With HSTY 353, forms a two-semester introduction to women’s studies. The politics of suffrage and the modern woman’s efforts to balance marriage, motherhood, and career. (HSTY 353 not a prerequisite.)
Offered as HSTY 354, WGST 354, and HSTY 454.


HSTY 355. Age of American Civil War 1815-80 (3)
This course examines the causes and consequences of the Civil War, focusing on the rise of sectionalism, the dynamics of conflict, and reconstruction. Heavy emphasis is placed on archival research in relevant first person accounts from the period.


HSTY 356. Industrial America: 1880-1940 (3)
The social, economic, and political adaptation of American society to the industrial age. The impact of industrialism on such recurrent historical problems as technological change, race relations, social reform, urbanization, and political participation.


HSTY 358. America Since 1940 (3)
A comprehensive introduction to the recent history of the Unites States, organized around changes in national policy and politics. Special emphasis on the impact of World War II and the Cold War; the expansion of the federal government through the Great Society and beyond; the Civil Rights and Women’s Rights movements; challenges to the legitimacy of politics; and the efforts to maintain economic growth.


HSTY 360. American Foreign Policy since 1900 (3)
The underlying economic, political, and cultural forces that influenced policy formation from the end of the Spanish-American War through the aftermath of the Vietnam War. The development and function of the national and international apparatus of foreign relations from the consular service, world court and cartels to the CIA, United Nations, and international corporations.


HSTY 361. Crime and Popular Culture in Early America (3)
This course explores the intersection of crime, punishment, and popular culture in colonial British America and the early United States through 1860 by closely examining a series of popular crime genres, including execution sermons, criminal conversion narratives, criminal autobiographies, and trial reports. Readings in modern scholarship--drawing on several disciplines--will shed light on the popular literature and on underlying patterns of crime and punishment, while students will critically evaluate modern scholarly interpretations in light of the early crime publications. Types of crimes explored in the readings include witchcraft, piracy, burglary, robbery, and various types of murder, such as infanticide, familicide (cases of men murdering their wives and children), and sexual homicide. Each student will write several short analytical papers drawn from the shared readings and, at the end of the semester, produce an independent research paper.
Offered as HSTY 361 and HSTY 461.


HSTY 362. American Social and Cultural History since 1865 (3)
History of the nationalization of new economic, political, social, scientific, and aesthetic ideas and their embodiment in the development of professions, social movements, and cultural institutions.


HSTY 364. City, Town, and Suburban American History (3)
Nearly all Americans now live in the big cities, suburbs, and nearby towns of large metropolitan regions; one hundred years ago most Americans lived in the countryside. This course explores the rise of cities and metropolitan regions as the settings for American life. It considers the timing of the urban and suburban movements, explanations for urbanization and suburbanization, and the changing character of city, suburban, and small town life. The course pays special attention to the consequences of urban and metropolitan growth for economic opportunity, for metropolitan government, for social life and conflict, and for cultural expression and cultural change.


HSTY 366. Science, Technology, and Government (3)
Traces the development and influence of federal technology and science policies from colonial times to the present, with emphasis on the 20th century.
Offered as HSTY 366 and POSC 365.


HSTY 368. Modern American Legal History (3)
Examines the workings of the modern American legal system from the Civil War to the present. Focus on the relationships between the law and social, economic, and professional change. Lectures, discussions, and analysis of legal documents.


HSTY 373. Advanced Topics in American Women’s History (3)
This advanced seminar is designed to allow students to investigate aspects of American women’s history that are not deeply explored in other courses. The two central purposes of the course are to move students forward in their study of American women’s history and to provide advanced study for graduate students and other students interested in women-focused topics. The topic is subject to change, but may be any of the following or something similar: women and medicine, images of women in popular culture, growing up female, women and political movements, women and war, etc. Recommended preparation: HSTY 353/453 or HSTY 354/454.
Offered as HSTY 373, WGST 373, and HSTY 473.


HSTY 377. Nuclear Weapons and Arms Control (3)
National and international problems concerning nuclear weapons, and the past and present attempts both to control their spread and to prevent their use. Topics covered include the science and technology of fission and fusion warheads and delivery vehicles; history, domestic policies, and international relations concerning nuclear weapons; and arms control treaties and their verification.
Offered as HSTY 377 and POSC 375.


HSTY 378. Environmental History of North America (3)
Explores the way nature has shaped history as well as the ecological consequences of development. Focus is on the relationship between the natural and the cultural with special attention to such topics as economic growth, wilderness, disease, environmental justice, and the conquest of the American West.


HSTY 379. America in the ‘50s (3)
American life and culture in the decade of Elvis, Eisenhower, McCarthy and the beginnings of the Civil Rights Movement. Films, novels and recordings will supplement lectures and discussions on such topics as the Cold War, conformity, the role of women, television, the Korean War, and beatniks.


HSTY 380. The Sixties in America (3)
This course examines social, cultural, and political changes in the United States during the 1960s. We begin by examining the economic prosperity and “fragile” political consensus of the post-WWII period, as well as the undercurrent of poverty, dissent, and Cold War fears. We then cover the civil rights movement, student activism, the women’s movement, the growth of Liberal America and the welfare state, the Vietnam War, the counterculture and conservative youth movements, the growth of a national consumer-driven, mass-mediated market, and the music, art, and pop culture--as well as their growing reliance on technological intervention--during this period of creative efflorescence. We will do this through reading books, but also through “reading” contemporary evidence of life in America, including listening to music, viewing films, analyzing pictures and artifacts.


HSTY 381. City as Classroom (3)
In this course, the city is the classroom. We will engage with the urban terrain. We will meet weekly off-campus, interact with community members, and interface--both literally and figuratively--with the city as a way to examine the linkages between historical, conceptual, and contemporary issues, with particular attention paid to race and class dynamics, inequality, and social justice. This course will have four intersecting components, primarily focusing on American cities since the 1930s: the social and physical construction of urban space, the built environment, life and culture in the city, and social movements and grassroots struggles.
Offered as HSTY 381, POSC 381, SOCI 381, HSTY 481, POSC 481, and SOCI 481.


HSTY 382. Chinese Business and Economic History (3)
This course explores China’s business and economic history from the opening of the treaty ports in the early 19th century to the post-war socialist economy, the market reforms in the 1980s and 1990s, and the most recent developments in the context of China’s social political transformation. One major focus of the course is a comparative approach to the issue of industrialization and the introduction of modern enterprises and economic structures into China. By examining the socio-economic background of Chinese business from family and personal networks to property rights, students learn about the institutional, cultural, and social aspects which are still relevant for business transactions and institutions in China today.


HSTY 383. The People’s Republic of China (3)
Now more than ever, the Chinese state and society are facing tremendous economic, social, and political challenges. This course presents an overview of the development of Chinese Communist theory and practice from 1949 to the present day. Among the topics covered are the Great Leap Forward, the Cultural Revolution, the economic reforms of the 1980s, the Tiananmen student protests, the Communist party’s crisis of legitimacy, the Taiwan problem, ecological challenges, the new socialist market economy, and current social developments from domestic migration to youth culture and new forms of nationalism. The class involves a mixture of lectures and discussion and draws on a combination of primary and secondary sources, including current news reports, films, documentaries, and fiction in translation.
Offered as HSTY 383 and POSC 368.


HSTY 390. Senior Research Seminars in History and Philosophy of Science (3)
Directed independent research seminar for seniors who are majors in the History and Philosophy of Science program. The goal of the course is to develop and demonstrate command of B.A.-level factual content, methodologies, research strategies, historiography, and theory relevant to the field of history of science and/or philosophy of science. The course includes both written and oral components.
Offered as HSTY 380 and PHIL 390.
SAGES Senior Cap


HSTY 391. Food in History (3)
Food is inextricably interconnected with the development of agriculture and other technologies, with the rise and fall of empires, with increasing understanding of diet and nutrition, with laws and regulations, with the arts, with economic development and consumer culture, and with religious and ethnic identities. By examining selective and representative episodes pertaining to each of these topics, this course explores the global history of food, from the agricultural revolution of the neolithic era to the consumer revolution of the last generation.
Offered as HSTY 391 and HSTY 491.


HSTY 394. Seminar in Evolutionary Biology (3)
This seminar investigates 20th-century evolutionary theory, especially the Modern Evolutionary synthesis and subsequent expansions of and challenges to that synthesis. The course encompasses the multidisciplinary nature of the science of evolution, demonstrating how disciplinary background influences practitioners’ conceptualizations of pattern and process. This course emphasizes practical writing and research skills, including formulation of testable theses, grant proposal techniques, and the implementation of original research using the facilities on campus and at the Cleveland Museum of Natural History.
Offered as ANTH 394, BIOL 394, GEOL 394, HSTY 394, PHIL 394, ANTH 494, BIOL 494, GEOL 494, HSTY 494, and PHIL 494.


HSTY 395. History of Medicine (3)
This course treats selected topics in the history of medicine, with an emphasis on social and cultural history. Focusing on the modern period, we examine illnesses, patients, and healers, with attention to the ways sickness and medicine touch larger questions of politics, social relations and identity.
Offered as HSTY 395 and HSTY 495.


HSTY 397. Undergraduate Tutorial (1-3)
Individual instruction with members of the history faculty. Recommended preparation: 12 hours of History.


HSTY 398. Senior Research Seminar (3)
Training in the nature and methods of historical writing and research.
Prereq: Majors only, Senior standing.
SAGES Senior Cap


HSTY 399. Advanced Readings in Black History (3)
This is an advanced readings course that may change from semester to semester. This course will provide students with an opportunity to more deeply explore special themes and theoretical issues in the field of black history that are often quickly and briefly covered in broad survey courses. Readings may be organized around specific topics such as resistance and social protest, black intellectual history, black nationalism and identity, black film and historical literacy black cultural forms and politics, black urban history, or some such other combination. Students may take this course more than once and receive credit as long as the course topic differs. Students should contact the History Department for more details on course content during any given semester. Offered as HSTY 399, HSTY 499.


HSTY 400. Graduate Topical Seminar (3)
A rotating graduate seminar, offered every semester by a different faculty member. Each semester focuses on a topic of central historiographical or methodological importance.


HSTY 402. Survey of the History of Science (3)
A graduate-level historiographic review of the history of the sciences from the seventeenth century to the present.


HSTY 404. Introduction to the Nonprofit Sector (3)
The United States has by far the largest and most important “nonprofit sector” in the world, a sector consisting of voluntary non-governmental organizations that provide health care, education and social services as well as arts, religious, and advocacy activities. Using mostly primary sources, this course considers the significance of the nonprofit sector in the U.S., its advantages and disadvantages, its uses for different groups of Americans, and current trends. Students have the option of writing either a standard term paper, or a study of strategic challenges facing a contemporary nonprofit organization.
Offered as HSTY 204 and HSTY 404.


HSTY 406. History Museums: Theory and Reality (3)
This course is an intensive summer internship (10 hours per week) at the Western Reserve Historical Society, complemented by extensive readings in museum/archival theory and public historical perception. It is designed both to introduce students to museum/archival work and to compare theoretical concepts with actual museum situations. Interns will be assigned a specific project within one of the Society’s curatorial or administrative divisions, but will have the opportunity to work on ancillary tasks throughout the Historical Society’s headquarters in University Circle.
Offered as HSTY 306 and HSTY 406.


HSTY 410. Seminar: Early American Historiography (3)
This seminar examines the historiography of early America. It is designed to acquaint history doctoral students with the major themes, methods, and scholars of American history from the seventeenth century to the mid-nineteenth century. Students will be expected to read and report on major works in the field.


HSTY 411. Seminar: Modern American Historiography (3)
This seminar examines the approaches that professional historians of the United States have taken to the writing of American history in the past fifty years, with emphasis on changes in historical concerns, master debates among historians, and contemporary interests. Topics covered include national politics and government, economic development, social history, the history of ethnicity, race, and gender, and foreign policy and international relations. Each student will read widely and will prepare a series of reports on selected books and authors.
Offered as HSTY 311 and HSTY 411.


HSTY 422. Feminist Theory, Women’s History, Gender History (3)
A reading seminar designed to expose students to current theory and methods in feminist history, as well as feminist scholarship more generally. It includes a variety of topics representative of interests and concerns shared by feminist historians, as well as a range of methodological approaches and theoretical debates. The course aims to impart a sense of the ways in which feminist theory has been applied to and has transformed historical scholarship.
Offered as HSTY 322, WGST 322, HSTY 422, and WGST 422.


HSTY 427. Comparative Environmental History (3)
Environmental history is the study of how humans have influenced the environments around them and how the environment itself has influenced the course of human societies. This course provides students with the skill to identify and analyze these interactions. It introduces course participants to the main themes of environmental history literature and the driving questions guiding environmental history research by examining case studies drawn around the globe, including Pre-Columbian America, Medieval Japan, Colonial Africa, and Modern Germany. This course will help course participants recognize the important patterns and developments that have led to present day human-environmental relationships.
Offered as HSTY 327 and HSTY 427.


HSTY 429. Museums and Globalization
Museums are everywhere contested spaces today. Historically designed as agents of public education and community formation, now they are centers of public controversy on a global scale. From Paris to Nairobi museums figure in conflicts over urban redevelopment, national identity, cultural diversity, and global tourism. Questions we will consider in this course: what are the fundamental features of museums as institutions; how have they been structured; what ties have linked them to wider national and international communities, political, economic and social concerns; how have they used resources such as research, collecting, buildings, display technologies, and geographic location to carry out these functions; how do museums in Asia, Africa the Middle East and Latin America figure in the current international contention over the issue of heritage: This is an innovative course offered jointly by JHU and CWRU using web-based technologies that allow students to collaborate on projects and access museums across the globe through internet resources with “visitors” from other countries participating on-line and students buildings web links for their presentations and written projects. This is an innovative course using web-based technologies that allow discussions between students and “visitors” from other countries, as well as student collaboration on projects and access to museums across the globe through internet resources.
Offered as HSTY 329 and HSTY 429.


HSTY 440. Science and Society Through Literature (3)
This course will examine the interaction of scientific investigation and discovery with the society it occurred in. What is the effect of science on society and, as importantly, what is the effect of society on science? An introduction will consider the heliocentric controversy with focus on Galileo. Two broad areas, tuberculosis and the Frankenstein myth, will then be discussed covering the period 1800-present. With tuberculosis, fiction, art and music will be examined to understand the changing views of society towards the disease, how society’s perception of tuberculosis victims changed, and how this influenced their treatments and research. With Frankenstein, the original novel in its historical context will be examined. Using fiction and film, the transformation of the original story into myth with different connotations and implications will be discussed. Most classes will be extensive discussions coupled with student presentations of assigned materials.
Offered as PHRM 340, BETH 440, PHRM 440, and HSTY 440.


HSTY 442. Water (3)
This seminar will explore the history of the meaning of water--that is, the social, cultural, and/or political significance placed on water by individuals and governments in different times and places. It will also examine how humans have acted upon water, and how it has acted upon humans, with great consequences for human life. This seminar will look at the history of water in the context of science, technology and society; public health; political science; and environmental history. Case studies will be drawn from a wide chronological and geographical range; from the ancient world to Renaissance Italy, nineteenth century India, modern Britain, Egypt, and the U.S. The course provides a wide perspective on the themes of the history of human-water interactions, but will also focus closely on some critical cases. Seminar participants will write a research paper on the topic of their choice in the environmental history of water.
Offered as: HSTY 342, HSTY 442, POSC 342, POSC 442.


HSTY 451. Seminar in the History of European Technology (3)
A graduate-level, research seminar on the history of European technology from the Industrial Revolution to the present. Special emphasis is on cultural history of technology with a transatlantic view. The themes of the seminar vary from year to year, but include: communications, industrialization, control, cultural and intellectual approaches to the history of technology. Required work includes a research paper based on original sources.


HSTY 452. Readings in the History of American Technology (3)
A graduate-level review of the history of American technology.


HSTY 453. Women in American History I (3)
The images and realities of women’s social, political, and economic lives in early America. Uses primary documents and biographers to observe individuals and groups of women in relation to legal, religious, and social restrictions.
Offered as HSTY 353, WGST 353, and HSTY 453.


HSTY 454. Women in American History II (3)
With HSTY 353, forms a two-semester introduction to women’s studies. The politics of suffrage and the modern woman’s efforts to balance marriage, motherhood, and career. (HSTY 353 not a prerequisite.)
Offered as HSTY 354, WGST 354, and HSTY 454.


HSTY 461. Crime and Popular Culture in Early America (3)
This course explores the intersection of crime, punishment, and popular culture in colonial British America and the early United States through 1860 by closely examining a series of popular crime genres, including execution sermons, criminal conversion narratives, criminal autobiographies, and trial reports. Readings in modern scholarship--drawing on several disciplines--will shed light on the popular literature and on underlying patterns of crime and punishment, while students will critically evaluate modern scholarly interpretations in light of the early crime publications. Types of crimes explored in the readings include witchcraft, piracy, burglary, robbery, and various types of murder, such as infanticide, familicide (cases of men murdering their wives and children), and sexual homicide. Each student will write several short analytical papers drawn from the shared readings and, at the end of the semester, produce an independent research paper.
Offered as HSTY 361 and HSTY 461.


HSTY 470. Historiography, Method, and Theory (3)
a graduate level survey of fundamental themes in historiography, method, and theory, as well as interdisciplinary methods and theories.


HSTY 473. Advanced Topics in American Women’s History (3)
This advanced seminar is designed to allow students to investigate aspects of American women’s history that are not deeply explored in other courses. The two central purposes of the course are to move students forward in their study of American women’s history and to provide advanced study for graduate students and other students interested in women-focused topics. The topic is subject to change, but may be any of the following or something similar: women and medicine, images of women in popular culture, growing up female, women and political movements, women and war, etc. Recommended preparation: HSTY 353/453 or HSTY 354/454.
Offered as HSTY 373, WGST 373, and HSTY 473.


HSTY 476. Seminar in Comparative History (3)
An introduction to comparative method for historians. The topics will vary year to year, but the course will require exposure to historical contexts outside of the United States.


HSTY 477. Modern Policy History of the United States (3)
This course offers a historical perspective on policy and policy making in the United States since the late nineteenth century. It emphasizes the increasing role of the federal government, the persisting importance of the states, the significance of the courts, the revolutionary impact of the women’s and civil rights movements, and the consequences of the growth and transformation of the American economy. Each student selects a policy area for detailed exploration; students often choose topics related to civil rights, women’s rights, health care, environmental reform, non-profit and non-governmental organizations, the arts, and education, but other topics are also appropriate.


HSTY 479. Historical Research and Writing (3)
A research seminar for historians. Students will produce a research paper based on primary sources. There will be substantial attention to the mechanics of writing.


HSTY 480. Public Policy and Aging (3)
Overview of aging and the aged. Concepts in the study of public policy. Policies on aging and conditions that they address. The politics of policies on aging. Emergent trends and issues.
Offered as ANTH 498, BETH 496, EPBI 408, GERO 496, HSTY 480, MPHP 408, NURS 479, NURS 579, POSC 480, and SOCI 496.


HSTY 481. City as Classroom (3)
In this course, the city is the classroom. We will engage with the urban terrain. We will meet weekly off-campus, interact with community members, and interface--both literally and figuratively--with the city as a way to examine the linkages between historical, conceptual, and contemporary issues, with particular attention paid to race and class dynamics, inequality, and social justice. This course will have four intersecting components, primarily focusing on American cities since the 1930s: the social and physical construction of urban space, the built environment, life and culture in the city, and social movements and grassroots struggles.
Offered as HSTY 381, POSC 381, SOCI 381, HSTY 481, POSC 481, and SOCI 481.


HSTY 491. Food in History (3)
Food is inextricably interconnected with the development of agriculture and other technologies, with the rise and fall of empires, with increasing understanding of diet and nutrition, with laws and regulations, with the arts, with economic development and consumer culture, and with religious and ethnic identities. By examining selective and representative episodes pertaining to each of these topics, this course explores the global history of food, from the agricultural revolution of the neolithic era to the consumer revolution of the last generation.
Offered as HSTY 391 and HSTY 491.


HSTY 494. Seminar in Evolutionary Biology (3)
This seminar investigates 20th-century evolutionary theory, especially the Modern Evolutionary synthesis and subsequent expansions of and challenges to that synthesis. The course encompasses the multidisciplinary nature of the science of evolution, demonstrating how disciplinary background influences practitioners’ conceptualizations of pattern and process. This course emphasizes practical writing and research skills, including formulation of testable theses, grant proposal techniques, and the implementation of original research using the facilities on campus and at the Cleveland Museum of Natural History.
Offered as ANTH 394, BIOL 394, GEOL 394, HSTY 394, PHIL 394, ANTH 494, BIOL 494, GEOL 494, HSTY 494, and PHIL 494.


HSTY 495. History of Medicine (3)
This course treats selected topics in the history of medicine, with an emphasis on social and cultural history. Focusing on the modern period, we examine illnesses, patients, and healers, with attention to the ways sickness and medicine touch larger questions of politics, social relations and identity.
Offered as HSTY 395 and HSTY 495.


HSTY 497. Graduate Independent Study (1-3)
Independent reading and research programs with individual members of the faculty.


HSTY 499. Advanced Readings in Black History (3)
This is an advanced readings course that may change from semester to semester. This course will provide students with an opportunity to more deeply explore special themes and theoretical issues in the field of black history that are often quickly and briefly covered in broad survey courses. Readings may be organized around specific topics such as resistance and social protest, black intellectual history, black nationalism and identity, black film and historical literacy black cultural forms and politics, black urban history, or some such other combination. Students may take this course more than once and receive credit as long as the course topic differs. Students should contact the History Department for more details on course content during any given semester. Offered as HSTY 399, HSTY 499.


HSTY 525. Intellectual Property and the Construction of Authorship (3)
“Authorship” and “invention” are among the West’s most powerful ideas--the categories by which creative production has been defined and valued for the last two centuries. We will investigate the emergence and consolidation of these ideas in the context of some of the institutions, technologies, and practices that have fostered and been fostered by them, such as printing and publishing, copyright and patent law, education curricula and disciplinary pedagogies. Then we will turn our attention to the varieties of authorship and invention in operation today--from the solitary ethos characteristic of the arts and humanities to the collaborative, even corporate, forms in ascendance in science and industry. How are ideas of authorship and invention employed in the various discursive spheres to assign credit and responsibility? May tensions be found with creative practice? What are the stakes? Who wins, who loses? And what will be the consequences of digitization and globalization? Our study will culminate in attendance at an interdisciplinary conference on “Con/texts of Invention” which will take place at Case Western Reserve on April 21-23. The goal of our study will be to identify worthy research topics within students’ own areas of interest.
Offered as ENGL 525 and HSTY 525.


HSTY 601. Independent Studies (1-18)
(Credit as arranged.)


HSTY 611. Introduction to Historiography (3)
Required seminar for all M.A. and Ph.D. students. Introduces students to historiographical and methodological issues. Recommended preparation: Graduate standing.


HSTY 651. Thesis M.A. (1-18)
(Credit as arranged.)


HSTY 701. Dissertation Ph.D. (1-18)
(Credit as arranged.) Limited to Ph.D. candidates actively engaged in the research and writing of their dissertations.
Prereq: Predoctoral research consent or advanced to Ph.D. candidacy milestone.