d arts, social and behavioral sciences, health sciences, mathematics, chemistry, physics, astronomy, and geological sciences.


Co-op Program in Biology


The Co-op (Cooperative Education) program offers full-time undergraduate students in good academic standing the opportunity to engage in full-time, paid employment consistent with their major fields of study. Typically students participate in the co-op program for one or two seven-month periods, such as summer-fall and/or spring-summer, beginning after their sophomore or junior year. Although participation in this program extends the time required to achieve a bachelor’s degree, students often benefit from higher starting salaries and greater lifetime earnings that can result from the experience acquired in co-op assignments. Co-op employment opportunities may exist at local companies engaged in biotechnology research, pharmaceuticals, or other areas involving the life sciences. Students interested in this program should contact the department office.


Graduate Programs


Master of Science


The Department of Biology offers both thesis and non-thesis Master of Science degree programs. Both programs require a minimum of 30 semester hours of courses at the 300 level or higher. A minimum of 18 semester hours of formal course work is required for the thesis degree, and a minimum of 24 semester hours of formal course work is required for the non-thesis degree. The remaining credits may be research credits (BIOL 601 and 651). Further information is available in the department office.


Doctor of Philosophy


The Doctor of Philosophy degree in biology is granted upon the completion of original research under the guidance of a faculty member in the Department of Biology. Students who are planning to enter the doctoral program should obtain information from the department office.


Course Descriptions


BIOL 114. Principles of Biology (3)
A basic biology course designed for the non-major. Topics include: molecules of life, cell structure, respiration and photosynthesis, molecular genetics and gene technology, heredity and human genetics, population genetics and evolution, diversity of life, and function of ecosystems. Course includes some applications of biological principles to agricultural, medical, and environmental concerns. BIOL 114 is not open to students with credit for BIOL 214. This course does not count toward the biology major.


BIOL 116. Introduction to Human Anatomy and Physiology I (3)
This course is the first course in a two-semester sequence that covers most systems of the human body. BIOL 116 covers homeostasis, membrane structure and function, membrane transport, tissue types, the integumentary system, neurons and nerves, the central nervous system, the peripheral nervous system, special senses (vision, hearing and equilibrium, taste, smell), and the cardiovascular system. This course is not open to students who have completed either BIOL 216 or BIOL 340 or BIOL 346.
Prereq or Coreq: BIOL 114.


BIOL 117. Introduction to Human Anatomy and Physiology II (3)
This course is the second course in a two-semester sequence that covers most systems of the human body. BIOL 117 covers respiratory system, endocrine system, digestive system, lymphatic system, immune system, urinary system, acid-base regulation, and reproductive systems. This course is not open to students who have completed either BIOL 216 or BIOL 340 or BIOL 346.
Prereq: BIOL 114 and BIOL 116.


BIOL 119. Concepts for a Molecular View of Biology I (3)
Introduction to the principles of inorganic and organic chemistry essential to the study of biochemistry, molecular biology, and pharmacology. Topics include: atomic theory, the periodic table, chemical bonds, molecular geometry, ideal gas laws, equilibrium and reaction rates, acids and bases, nuclear chemistry, and nomenclature and reactions of organic compounds (including alkyl, aryl, alcohol, carbonyl, and amino compounds). Problems involving numeric computation are emphasized. This course is not open to students with credit for CHEM 105.


BIOL 121. Concepts for a Molecular View of Biology II (3)
The second semester of a two-course sequence in elementary inorganic, organic, and biochemistry. Topics include: carbohydrates, lipids, proteins, enzyme kinetics, metabolic pathways and bioenergetics, DNA and RNA, methods of molecular biology, and nutrition. Applications to human physiology and medicine emphasized. BIOL 121 is not open to students with credit for CHEM 223.
Prereq: BIOL 119.


BIOL 214. Genes and Evolution
First in a series of three courses required of the Biology major. Topics include: biological molecules (with a focus on DNA and RNA); basics of cell structure (with a focus on the nucleus and chromosome); cell cycle, mitosis and meiosis; molecular genetics, viruses and gene technology; classical and microbial genetics; population genetics and evolution, diversity resulting from evolution.
Prereq: CHEM 105 or CHEM 111.


BIOL 214L. Genes and Evolution Laboratory (1)
First in a series of three laboratory courses required of the Biology major. Topics include: biological molecules (with a focus on DNA and RNA); basics of cell structure (with a focus on the nucleus and chromosome); cell cycle, mitosis and melosis; molecular genetics, biotechnology; population genetics and evolution, diversity resulting from evolution. Laboratories and discussion sessions offered in alternate weeks.
Prereq or Coreq: BIOL 214.


BIOL 215. Cells and Proteins (3)
Second in a series of three courses required of the Biology major. Topics to include: protein structure-function, including binding of antibodies to antigens, enzymes to substrates, and oxygen to hemoglobin, enzyme kinetics; cell structure; cellular energetics, respiration and photosynthesis. In addition, membrane structure and transport and transduction of hormonal signals will be covered.
Prereq: BIOL 214 or consent; or CHEM 105 and CHEM 106; or CHEM 111.


BIOL 215L. Cells and Proteins Laboratory (1)
Second in a series of three laboratory courses required of the Biology major. Topics to include: protein structure-function, enzymes kinetics; cell structure; cellular energetics, respiration and photosynthesis. In addition, membrane structure and transport will be covered. Laboratory and discussion sessions offered in alternate weeks. This course is not available for students who have taken BIOL 215 as a 4-credit course.
Prereq: CHEM 105 and CHEM 106 and BIOL 214. Prereq or Coreq: BIOL 215.


BIOL 216. Organisms and Ecosystems (3)
Third in a series of three courses required of the Biology major. Topics include: homeostasis, including endocrine and autonomic controls; function of neurons and nervous systems; function of organ systems involved in circulation, excretion, osmoregulation, gas exchange, feeding, digestion, and temperature regulation; reproduction and development; behavior, population dynamics, community ecology, and function of ecosystems.
Prereq: BIOL 214 and either CHEM 105 or CHEM 111.


BIOL 216L. Organisms and Ecosystems Laboratory (1)
Third in a series of three laboratory courses required of the Biology major. Students will conduct laboratory experiments designed to provide students with hands-on empirical laboratory experience in order to better understand the complex interactions governing the basic physiology and development of organisms, as well as the functioning of ecosystems. Laboratories and discussion sessions offered in alternate weeks.
Prereq or Coreq: BIOL 216.


BIOL 223. Vertebrate Biology (3)
A survey of vertebrates from jawless fishes to mammals. Functional morphology, physiology, behavior and ecology as they relate to the groups’ relationships with their environment. Evolution of organ systems. Two lectures and one laboratory per week. The laboratory will involve a study of the detailed anatomy of the shark and cat used as representative vertebrates. Students are expected to spend at least three hours of unscheduled laboratory each week. This course fulfills a laboratory requirement for the biology major. Recommended preparation: BIOL 214.


BIOL 225. Evolution (3)
Multidisciplinary study of the course and processes of organic evolution provides a broad understanding of the evolution of structural and functional diversity, the relationships among organisms and their environments, and the phylogenetic relationships among major groups of organisms. Topics include the genetic basis of micro- and macro-evolutionary change, the concept of adaptation, natural selection, population dynamics, theories of species formation, principles of phylogenetic inference, biogeography, evolutionary rates, evolutionary convergence, homology, Darwinian medicine, and conceptual and philosophic issues in evolutionary theory.
Offered as ANTH 225, BIOL 225, GEOL 225, HSTY 225, and PHIL 225.


BIOL 250. Introduction to Cell and Molecular Biology Systems (3)
This course will emphasize an understanding of living organisms at the cellular level from a molecular view point. Topics to be covered will include: unity and diversity of living things, evolutionary relatedness, cells, tissues and organelles, life as a biochemical process, molecular building blocks of life, gene structure and function, uses of model organisms and molecular experimental methods. The topics to be covered are relevant to current practices in biotechnology, medicine and agriculture and these connections will be highlighted. This course is not open to students who have received credit for BIOL 214 and/or BIOL 215.


BIOL 251. Introduction to Organismal and Population Systems (3)
This course will emphasize an understanding of the regulation of the structure and function of organismal and population systems. Adopting an evolutionary perspective, the course will provide students with a comparative analysis of plant and animal solutions to the problem of multicellularity. Detailed exploration of animals will focus on the development of tissue and organ systems and their coordination at an organismal level. This systems approach will then be extended to regulation of ecosystems and abundance of organisms in populations.


BIOL 300. Dynamics of Biological Systems: A Quantitative Introduction to Biology (3)
This course will introduce students to dynamic biological phenomena, from the molecular to the population level, and models of these dynamical phenomena. It will describe a biological system, discuss how to model its dynamics, and experimentally evaluate the resulting models. Topics will include molecular dynamics of biological molecules, kinetics of cell metabolism and the cell cycle, biophysics of excitability, scaling laws for biological systems, biomechanics, and population dynamics. Mathematical tools for the analysis of dynamic biological processes will also be presented. Students will manipulate and analyze simulations of biological processes, and learn to formulate and analyze their own models. This course satisfies a laboratory requirement for the biology major.
Offered as BIOL 300 and EBME 300.


BIOL 301. Biotechnology Laboratory: Genes and Genetic Engineering (3)
Laboratory training in recombinant DNA techniques. Basic microbiology, growth, and manipulation of bacteriophage, bacteria and yeast. Students isolate and characterize DNA, construct recombinant DNA molecules, and reintroduce them into eukaryotic cells (yeast, plant, animal) to assess their viability and function. Two laboratories per week.
Offered as BIOL 301 and BIOL 401.
Prereq: BIOL 215.


BIOL 302. Human Learning and the Brain (3)
This course focuses on the question, “How does the human brain learn?” Through assigned readings, extensive class discussions, and a major paper, each student will explore personal perspectives on learning. Specific topics include, but are not limited to: the brain’s cycle of learning; neocortex structure and function; emotion and limbic brain; synapse dynamics and changes in learning; images in cognition; symbolic brain (language, mathematics, music); memory formation; and creative thought and brain mechanisms. The major paper will be added to each student’s SAGES writing portfolio. In addition, near the end of the semester, each student will make an oral presentation on a chosen topic.
Prereq: BIOL 114 or BIOL 214 or PSCL 101.


SAGES Dept Seminar
BIOL 303. Principles of Chemical Biology (4)

This is a computer-assisted course and offers a detailed introduction into biological macromolecular structure and function with particular emphasis on proteins. Computer-assisted learning will follow each lecture and will involve either searching the Web for appropriate sources of information covered in the lecture or using spreadsheets and graphics to examine data extracted from the chemical biology and biomedical literature. For example, the protein database (PDB) and Rasmol software will be used to visualize and measure biological macromolecules and extracted data from the biomedical literature will be analyzed by standard graphical procedures employing the computer. This new format will offer the student the ability to learn to use the information resources on the Web together with the computing ability of the computer to explore the concepts presented in the course. This course satisfies a laboratory requirement for the biology major.
Prereq: CHEM 105 and CHEM 106 or CHEM 111 and ENGR 145.


BIOL 305. Herpetology (4)
Structure, function, and identification of amphibians and reptiles; emphasis on North American herpetofauna. Evolution, anatomy, zoogeography, and systematics of the major families of amphibians and reptiles. Physiological ecology, behavior, reproductive and population biology, field survey techniques, and behavioral observations of live animals. Three lectures and one session on special topics per week. Several weekend field trips. The course is offered in the spring semester of odd-numbered years.
Prereq: BIOL 214.


BIOL 306. Dynamics of Biological Systems II: Tools for Mathematical Biology (3)
Building on the material in Biology 300, this course focuses on the mathematical tools used to construct and analyze biological models, with examples drawn largely from ecology but also from epidemiology, developmental biology, and other areas. Analytic “paper and pencil” techniques are emphasized, but we will also use computers to help develop intuition. By the end of the course, students should be able to recognize basic building blocks in biological models, be able to perform simple analysis, and be more fluent in translating between verbal and mathematical descriptions.
Prereq: BIOL 300.


BIOL 307. Evolutionary Biology of the Invertebrates (3)
Important events in the evolution of invertebrate life, as well as structure, function, and phylogeny of major invertebrate groups.


BIOL 308. Molecular Biology: Genes and Genetic Engineering (4)
An examination of the flow of genetic information from DNA to RNA to protein. Topics include: nucleic acid structure; mechanisms and control of DNA, RNA, and protein biosynthesis; recombinant DNA; and mRNA processing and modification. Where possible, eukaryotic and prokaryotic systems are compared. Special topics include yeast as a model organism, molecular biology of cancer, and molecular biology of the cell cycle. Current literature is discussed briefly as an introduction to techniques of genetic engineering. Recommended preparation for BIOC 408 and BIOL 408: BIOC 307 or BIOL 214.
Offered as BIOC 308, BIOL 308, BIOC 408, and BIOL 408.
Prereq: BIOL 215 or BIOC 307.


BIOL 309. Introduction to Research in Mathematical Biology (1)
The purpose of this seminar is to introduce students to some of the research being done at Case Western Reserve that explores questions at the intersection of mathematics and biology. Students will explore roughly five research collaborations, spending two weeks with each research group. In the first three classes of each two-week block, students will read and discuss relevant papers, guided by members of that research group, and the two-week period will culminate in a talk in which a member of the research group will present a potential undergraduate project in that area. After the final group’s talk, students will divide themselves into groups of two to four people and choose one project for further exploration. Together, they will write up this project as a research proposal, introducing the problem, explaining how it connects to broader scientific questions, and outlining the proposed work. It is expected that students will use the associated research group as a resource, but the proposal should be their own work. Students will submit a first draft, receive feedback, and then submit a revised draft.
Offered as BIOL 309 and MATH 342.


BIOL 312. Environmental Sculpture (3)
This course explores sculptural/architectural possibilities within three environmental realms: the natural, urban, and social/communal. The definition and application of “Sculpture” and “Architecture” may vary dramatically from project to project, where the boundary between sculpture and architecture may be blurred. Throughout, an emphasis on ecological awareness will be maintained, as it relates to environmental impact of structures in the landscape, as well as the materials and pathway of construction. This course satisfies a laboratory requirement for the biology major.


SAGES Senior Cap
BIOL 313. Genetics Laboratory (2)

This laboratory exposes students to the methods used to study the genetics of a wide range of organisms. Some of the topics covered are: gene mapping in diploids, tetrad analysis, mutagenesis, complementation, and mitotic recombination. Emphasis is placed on the relationship between the genotype and the biochemical events which determine the phenotype. One laboratory per week.
Prereq or Coreq: BIOL 326.


BIOL 314. Animal Cognition and Consciousness (4)
This course examines the notions of intelligence, cognition, reasoning, consciousness, and mental content as they appear in the philosophical views and empirical studies of animals in individual and social contexts. We will review scientific findings that suggest striking likenesses and intriguing differences in the (apparent) thought processes of humans and animals, and ask whether the research techniques that brought us these results are fully adequate to measuring such unobservable entities as conscious experience and thought. Techniques of measurement range from naturalistic observation, to the processing of vocalizations, to memory and problem solving tasks, and the imaging of brain processes through fMRI scans, etc. Students will face the challenges and rewards of practicing these techniques and reworking philosophical theories in the service component of the course. Students will participate in veterinary or shelter work to provide needed animal care while studying animal behavior using cognitive ethological methods. We will compare methods for measuring consciousness and intelligence in animals to those used for human beings, and ask questions about the possibility of machine consciousness and the emergent property of group consciousness.
Offered as BIOL 314, COGS 314, PHIL 314 and PHIL 414.


BIOL 315. Quantitative Biology Laboratory (3)
Application of personal computers to biological research. Emphasis on the use of structured programming and flow charting. Use of statistical techniques, analysis of experimental design, modeling strategies. The use of diverse software packages such as spreadsheets, word processing, statistical packages. Continuous interaction with the WWW. Weekly lectures and problem sets posted in the WWW home page. One lecture and one lab per week. During the last 6 weeks of the course, graduate students will have a final project that consists of data analysis and interpretation. Report required for the final project for graduate students.
Offered as BIOL 315 and BIOL 415.
Prereq: BIOL 216.


BIOL 316. Fundamental Immunology (4)
Introductory immunology providing an overview of the immune system, including activation, effector mechanisms, and regulation. Topics include antigen-antibody reactions, immunologically important cell surface receptors, cell-cell interactions, cell-mediated immunity, innate versus adaptive immunity, cytokines, and basic molecular biology and signal transduction in B and T lymphocytes, and immunopathology. Three weekly lectures emphasize experimental findings leading to the concepts of modern immunology. An additional recitation hour is required to integrate the core material with experimental data and known immune mediated diseases. Five mandatory 90 minute group problem sets per semester will be administered outside of lecture and recitation meeting times. Graduate students will be graded separately from undergraduates, and 22 percent of the grade will be based on a critical analysis of a recently published, landmark scientific article.
Offered as BIOL 316, BIOL 416, CLBY 416, and PATH 416.
Prereq: BIOL 215.


BIOL 318. Introductory Entomology (4)
The goal of this course is to discover that, for the most part, insects are not aliens from another planet. Class meetings will alternate; with some structured as lectures, while others are laboratory exercises. Sometimes we will meet at the Cleveland Museum of Natural History, or in the field to collect and observe insects. The 50 minute discussion meeting once a week will serve to address questions from both lectures and lab exercises. The students will be required to make a small but comprehensive insect collection. Early in the semester we will focus on collecting the insects, and later, when insects are gone for the winter, we will work to identify the specimens collected earlier. Students will be graded based on exams, class participation and their insect collections. Offered as BIOL 318 and BIOL 418.
Prereq: BIOL 214, and BIOL 215, and BIOL 216.


BIOL 319. Applied Probability and Stochastic Processes for Biology (4)
Applications of probability and stochastic processes to biological systems. Mathematical topics will include: introduction to discrete and continuous probability spaces (including numerical generation of pseudo random samples from specified probability distributions), Markov processes in discrete and continuous time with discrete and continuous sample spaces, point processes including homogeneous and inhomogeneous Poisson processes and Markov chains on graphs, and diffusion processes including Brownian motion and the Ornstein-Uhlenbeck process. Biological topics will be determined by the interests of the students and the instructor. Likely topics include: stochastic ion channels, molecular motors and stochastic ratchets, actin and tubulin polymerization, random walk models for neural spike trains, bacterial chemotaxis, signaling and genetic regulatory networks, and stochastic predator-prey dynamics. The emphasis will be on practical simulation and analysis of stochastic phenomena in biological systems. Numerical methods will be developed using both MATLAB and the R statistical package. Student projects will comprise a major part of the course.
Offered as BIOL 319, EECS 319, MATH 319, BIOL 419, EBME 419, and PHOL 419.


BIOL 325. Cell Biology (3)
This course will emphasize an understanding of the structure and function of eukaryotic cells from a molecular viewpoint. We will explore cell activities by answering the questions what do cells do and how do they do it. The answers to these questions will be developed using experimental evidence from the literature and explanations from the text. An important part of this course will be appreciation of the experimental evidence which supports our current understanding of cell function. To achieve this aim, students will read papers from the primary literature to supplement the text. Topics will include cell structure, protein structure and function, internal organization of the eukaryotic cell, membrane structure and function, protein sorting, organelle biogenesis, and cytoskeleton structure and function. The course will also cover the life cycles of cells, their interactions and finally use the immune response as a model of cell behavior.
Prereq: BIOL 214 and BIOL 215.


BIOL 326. Genetics (3)
Transmission genetics, nature of mutation, microbial genetics, somatic cell genetics, recombinant DNA techniques and their application to genetics, human genome mapping, plant breeding, transgenic plants and animals, uniparental inheritance, evolution, and quantitative genetics.
Offered as BIOL 326 and BIOL 426.
Prereq: BIOL 214.


BIOL 328. Plant Genomics and Proteomics (3)
The development of molecular tools has impacted agriculture as much as human health. The application of new techniques to improve food crops, including the development of genetically modified crops, has also become controversial. This course covers the nature of the plant genome and the role of sequenced-based methods in the identification of the genes. The application of the whole suite of modern molecular tools to understand plant growth and development, with specific examples related agronomically important responses to biotic and abiotic stresses, is included. The impact of the enormous amounts of data generated by these methods and their storage and analysis (bioinformatics) is also considered. Finally, the impact on both the developed and developing world of the generation and release of genetically modified food crops will be covered. Recommended preparation: BIOL 326.
Offered as BIOL 328 and BIOL 428.


BIOL 334. Structural Biology (3)
Introduces basic chemical properties of proteins and discusses the physical forces that determine protein structure. Topics include: the elucidation of protein structure by NMR and by X-ray crystallographic methods; the acquisition of protein structures from data bases; and simple modeling experiments based on protein structures.
Offered as BIOC 334, BIOL 334, BIOC 434, and BIOL 434.


BIOL 336. Aquatic Biology
Physical, chemical, and biological dynamics of lake ecosystems. Factors governing the distribution, abundance, and diversity of freshwater organisms.
Prereq: BIOL 216.


BIOL 338. Ichthyology (3)
Biology of fishes. Students will first develop fundamental understanding of the evolutionary history and systematics of fishes to provide a context within which they can address diverse aspects of biology including anatomy, physiology (e.g., in species that change sex; osmoregulation in freshwater vs. saltwater), and behavior (e.g. visual, auditory, chemical, electric communication; social structures). Finally, this knowledge will be used to explore the biodiversity of fishes around the world, with emphasis on Ohio species, by examining preserved specimens in class and making two local field trips to (1) observe captive living specimens, and (2) to observe, capture, and identify wild fishes in their natural habitats. The course will conclude with an analysis of the current global fisheries crisis that has resulted from human activities. Fishes will be used to address broad topics in ecology and evolutionary biology that transcend the pure study of ichthyology. Recommended preparation for BIOL 438: BIOL 216.
Offered as BIOL 338 and BIOL 438.
Prereq: BIOL 216.


BIOL 339. Aquatic Biology Laboratory (2)
The physical, chemical, and biological limnology of freshwater ecosystems will be investigated. Emphasis will be on identification of the organisms inhabiting these systems and their ecological interactions with each other. This course will combine both field and laboratory analysis to characterize and compare the major components of these ponds. Students will have the opportunity to design and conduct individual projects.
Prereq or Coreq: BIOL 336.


BIOL 340. Human Physiology (3)
This course will provide functional correlates to the students’ previous knowledge of human anatomy. Building upon the basic principles covered in BIOL 216 and 346, the physiology of organs and organ systems of humans, including the musculoskeletal, nervous, cardiovascular, lymphatic, immune, respiratory, digestive, excretory, reproductive, and endocrine systems, will be studied at an advanced level. The contribution of each system to homeostasis will be emphasized.
Prereq: BIOL 216 and BIOL 346.


BIOL 343. Microbiology (3)
An introduction to the physiology, genetics, biochemistry, and diversity of microorganisms. The subject will be approached both as a basic biological science that studies the molecular and biochemical processes of cells and viruses, and as an applied science that examines the involvement of microorganisms in human disease as well as in workings of ecosystems, plant symbioses, and industrial processes. The course is divided into four major areas: bacteria, viruses, medical microbiology, and environmental and applied microbiology.
Prereq: BIOL 215.


BIOL 344. Laboratory for Microbiology (3)
Practical microbiology, with an emphasis on bacteria as encountered in a variety of situations. Sterile techniques, principles of identification, staining and microscopy, growth and nutritional characteristics, genetics, enumeration methods, epidemiology, immunological techniques (including ELISA and T cell identification), antibiotics and antibiotic resistance, chemical diagnostic tests, sampling the human environment, and commercial applications. One lab per week.
Prereq or Coreq: BIOL 343.


BIOL 346. Human Anatomy (3)
Gross anatomy of the human body. Two lectures and one laboratory demonstration per week.
Prereq: BIOL 214.


BIOL 348. Human Anatomy and Physiology (4–5)
The anatomy and physiology of the human body. Enrollment is restricted to students majoring in nutrition. Four lectures and one laboratory per week.
Offered as BIOL 348 and BIOL 448.


BIOL 351. Principles of Ecology (3)
This lecture course explores spatial and temporal relationships involving organisms and the environment at individual, population, and community levels. An underlying theme of the course will be neo-Darwinian evolution through natural selection with an emphasis on organismal adaptations to abiotic and biotic environments. Studies and models will illustrate ecological principles, and there will be some emphasis on the applicability of these principles to ecosystem conservation. Students taking the graduate level course will prepare a grant proposal in which hypotheses will be based on some aspect of ecological theory. Recommended preparation: BIOL 216.
Offered as BIOL 351 and BIOL 451.


BIOL 351L. Principles of Ecology Laboratory (2)
Students in this laboratory course will conduct a variety of ecological investigations that are designed to examine relationships involving organisms and the environment at individual, population, and community levels. Descriptive and hypothesis-driven investigations will take place at Case Western Reserve University’s Squire Valleevue Farm, in both field and greenhouse settings. The course is designed to explore as well as test a variety of ecological paradigms. Students taking the graduate level course will prepare a grant proposal in which hypotheses will be based on a select number of lab investigations. This course satisfies a laboratory requirement for biology majors. Recommended preparation or concurrent enrollment in BIOL 351 or BIOL 451.
Offered as BIOL 351L and BIOL 451L.


BIOL 352. Introduction to Ecology and Field Biology (3)
This course will be an introduction to the field-based study of the interactions that determine the abundance and distribution of organisms. There will be a heavy emphasis on experimentation and data collection in the field as we investigate a diversity of terrestrial and aquatic habitats on the Squire Valleevue Farm property. Students will have the opportunity to practice important ecological sampling techniques as they study the relationships between individuals, populations, and communities and the environments they live in. This course satisfies a laboratory requirement for the biology major. Offered summer semester only.
Prereq: BIOL 216.


BIOL 353. Ecophysiology of Global Change (3)
Climate changes and natural selection, prior to human activities, have pre-equipped autotrophic organisms with a suite of adaptations to natural abiotic stress. Whether these adaptations are capable of dealing with current and future levels (magnitude, speed) of non-natural abiotic change is of great interest. This course will examine, in detail, the tight physiological interactions between plants and their variable environment. Emphasizing major aspects of indirect (UV-B, global warming, altered precipitation) and direct (CO2, O3, SOx, NOx) anthropogenic pollution, relevant plant cellular processes, and responses of plants to abiotic stress, will be examined. With this foundation, class discussions will explore scaled collective consequences of global change to plant-dominated terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems.
Offered as BIOL 353 and BIOL 453.
Prereq: BIOL 216.


BIOL 358. Animal Behavior (4)
Ultimately the success or failure (i.e., life or death) of any individual animal is determined by its behavior. The ability to locate and capture food, avoid being food, acquiring and defending territory, and successfully passing your genes to the next generation, are all dependent on complex interactions between an animal’s design, environment and behavior. This course will be an integrative approach emphasizing experimental studies of animal behavior. You will be introduced to state-of-the-art approaches to the study of animal behavior, including neural and hormonal mechanisms, genetic and developmental mechanisms and ecological and evolutionary approaches. We will learn to critique examples of current scientific papers, and learn how to conduct observations and experiments with real animals. We will feature guest appearances by the Curator of Research from the Cleveland MetroParks Zoo and visits to working animal behavior research labs here at Case Western Reserve. Group discussions and writing will be emphasized. This course satisfies a laboratory requirement for biology majors.
Offered as BIOL 358 and BIOL 458.
Prereq: BIOL 114 or BIOL 214.


BIOL 361. Building an Educational Website: Zebrafish in the Classroom (3)
Students with backgrounds in computer science and biology will work together to build a “Zebrafish in the Classroom” website. The zebrafish model system has many characteristics that make it an excellent tool for teaching: embryos are easy to obtain in large numbers, development can observed in vivo using simple dissecting microscopes, and mutants can be used to demonstrate principles of development and genetics. Although scientists around the world are using zebrafish in their courses, there is no centralized place for educators and students to share ideas and materials. During this course, students will create content for and build a website that will disseminate ideas for using zebrafish as a teaching tool. In its mature form, the website will contain protocols for using zebrafish in laboratory courses for students at all stages of their education, tours, movies, discussion and question boards, and an on-line journal where students can publish their work. Students enrolling in this course should have background in web design or developmental biology.
Prereq: BIOL 362.
SAGES Senior Cap


BIOL 362. Principles of Developmental Biology (3)
The descriptive and experimental aspects of animal development. Gametogenesis, fertilization, cleavage, morphogenesis, induction, differentiation, organogenesis, growth, and regeneration.
Prereq: BIOL 216.


BIOL 363. Experimental Developmental Biology (3)
Laboratory will teach concepts and techniques in developmental biology using wildtype, mutant, and transgenic fluorescent zebrafish. Emphasis will be on the mechanisms that pattern the embryo during development and how these mechanisms are explored using molecular, cellular, and genetic approaches. Term research paper required. Students taking the graduate level course will prepare a grant proposal. One laboratory per week. Limit: 10 students.
Offered as BIOL 363 and BIOL 463.
Prereq: BIOL 216 and BIOL 362.


BIOL 365. Evo-Devo: Evolution of Body Plans (3)
This discussion-based course offers a detailed introduction to Evolutionary Developmental Biology. The field seeks to explain evolutionary events through the mechanisms of Developmental Biology and Genetics. The course is structured into different modules. First we will look at the developmental genetic mechanisms that can cause variation. Then we focus on how alterations of these mechanisms can generate novel structural changes. We will then examine a few areas of active debate, where Evo-Devo is attempting to solve major problems in evolutionary biology. We will conclude with two writing assignments. Students will be required to present, read, and discuss primary literature in each module.
Offered as BIOL 365 and BIOL 465.
Prereq: BIOL 225 or BIOL 362.
SAGES Dept Seminar


BIOL 366. Genes, Embryos and Fossils (3)
This multidisciplinary seminar course is designed to help students understand fundamental concepts of development and evolution of biological systems. Because scientists communicate their ideas through journal articles, seminars, and in grant proposals, the course will focus upon reading and synthesizing primary literature. In this discussion-based course, students will also learn to effectively present and write on three topics that are at the exciting intersection of genetics, developmental biology, and evolution. Finally, students will be provided with the technical and intellectual skills which are needed to write a grant proposal and a literature review.
Prereq: BIOL 225 or BIOL 326 or BIOL 362 or BIOL 365.
SAGES Dept Seminar


BIOL 368. Topics in Evolutionary Biology (3)
The focus for this course on a special topic of interest in evolutionary biology will vary from one offering to the next. Examples of possible topics include theories of speciation, the evolution of language, the evolution of sex, evolution and biodiversity, molecular evolution. ANAT/ANTH/GEOL/PHIL 467/BIOL 468 will require a longer, more sophisticated term paper, and additional class presentation.
Offered as ANTH 367, BIOL 368, GEOL 367, PHIL 367, ANAT 467, ANTH 467, BIOL 468, GEOL 467, and PHIL 467.


BIOL 369. Evolutionary Biology Capstone (3)
This course focuses on a special topic of interest in evolutionary biology that will vary from one offering to the next. Examples of possible topics include theories of speciation, the evolution of language, the evolution of sex, evolution and biodiversity, molecular evolution. Students will participate in discussions and lead class seminars on evolutionary topics and in collaboration with an advisor or advisors, select a topic for a research paper or project. Each student will write a major research report or complete a major project and will make a public presentation of her/his findings.
Offered as ANTH 368, BIOL 369, PHIL 368.


SAGES Senior Cap
BIOL 373. Introduction to Neurobiology (3)

How nervous systems control behavior. Biophysical, biochemical, and molecular biological properties of nerve cells, their organization into circuitry, and their function within networks. Emphasis on quantitative methods for modeling neurons and networks, and on critical analysis of the contemporary technical literature in the neurosciences. Term paper required for graduate students.
Offered as BIOL 373, BIOL 473, and NEUR 473.
Prereq: BIOL 216.


BIOL 374. Neurobiology of Behavior (3)
In this course, students will examine how neurobiologists interested in animal behavior study the linkage between neural circuitry and complex behavior. Various vertebrate and invertebrate systems will be considered. Several exercises will be used in this endeavor. Although some lectures will provide background and context on specific neural systems, the emphasis of the course will be on classroom discussion of specific journal articles. In addition, students will each complete a project in which they will observe some animal behavior and generate both behavioral and neurobiological hypotheses related to it. In lieu of examinations, students will complete three written assignments, including a theoretical grant proposal, a one-page Specific Aims paper related to the project, and a final project paper. These assignments are designed to give each student experience in writing biologically-relevant documents. Classroom discussions will help students understand the content and format of each type document. They will also present their projects orally to the entire class. Recommended preparation: BIOL 216.
Offered as BIOL 374, BIOL 474, and NEUR 474.


SAGES Dept Seminar
BIOL 376. Neurobiology Laboratory (3)

Introduction to the basic laboratory techniques of neurobiology. Intracellular and extracellular recording techniques, forms of synaptic plasticity, patch clamping, immunohistochemistry and confocal microscopy. During the latter weeks of the course students will be given the opportunity to conduct an independent project. One laboratory and one discussion session per week. Recommended preparation for BIOL 476 and NEUR 476: BIOL 216.
Offered as BIOL 376, BIOL 476 and NEUR 476.
Prereq: BIOL 216.


BIOL 377. Biorobotics Team Research (3)

Many exciting research opportunities cross disciplinary lines. To participate in such projects, researchers must operate in multi-disciplinary teams. The Biorobotics Team Research course offers a unique capstone opportunity for undergraduate students to utilize skills they developed during their undergraduate experience while acquiring new teaming skills. A group of eight students form a research team under the direction of two faculty leaders. Team members are chosen from appropriate majors through interviews with the faculty. They will research a biological mechanism or principle and develop a robotic device that captures the actions of that mechanism. Although each student will cooperate on the team, they each have a specific role, and must develop a final paper that describes the research generated on their aspect of the project. Students meet for one class period per week and two 2-hour lab periods. Initially students brainstorm ideas and identify the project to be pursued. They then acquire biological data and generate robotic designs. Both are further developed during team meetings and reports. Final oral reports and a demonstration of the robotic device occur in week 15.
Offered as BIOL 377, EMAE 377, BIOL 477, and EMAE 477.
SAGES Senior Cap


BIOL 378. Computational Neuroscience (3)
Computer simulations and mathematical analysis of neurons and neural circuits, and the computational properties of nervous systems. Students are taught a range of models for neurons and neural circuits, and are asked to implement and explore the computational and dynamic properties of these models. The course introduces students to dynamical systems theory for the analysis of neurons and neural learning, models of brain systems, and their relationship to artificial and neural networks. Term project required. Students enrolled in MATH 478 will make arrangements with the instructor to attend additional lectures and complete additional assignments addressing mathematical topics related to the course. Recommended preparation: MATH 223 and MATH 224 or BIOL 300 and BIOL 306.
Offered as BIOL 378, COGS 378, MATH 378, BIOL 478, EBME 478, EECS 478, MATH 478 and NEUR 478.


BIOL 379. Neuroscience of Communication and Communication Disorders (3)
The course focus is neuroanatomy and neurophysiology related to motor control and cognition, particularly aspects of cognition involved in language functions. Topics to be addressed include: principles of neurophysiology and neurochemistry; functional neuroanatomy of the central and peripheral nervous systems; neurological and neuropsychological assessment of communication; neurodiagnostic methods. In part, the course material will be presented in a problem-based learning format. That is, normal aspects of human neuroscience will be discussed in the context of neurological disorders affecting communication.
Offered as BIOL 379 and COSI 305.


BIOL 382. Drugs, Brain, and Behavior (3)
This course is concerned with the mechanisms underlying neurochemical signaling and the impact of drugs on those mechanisms. The first half of the course emphasizes the fundamental mechanisms underlying intra- and extracellular communication of neurons and the basic principles of how drugs interact with the nervous system. The second half of the course emphasizes understanding the neural substrates of disorders of the nervous system, and the mechanisms underlying the therapeutic effects of drugs at the cellular and behavioral levels. This course will consist of lectures designed to give the student necessary background for understanding these basic principles and class discussion. The class discussion will include viewing video examples of behavioral effects of disorders of the nervous system, and analysis of research papers. The goal of the class discussions is to enhance the critical thinking skills of the student and expose the student to contemporary research techniques.
Offered as BIOL 382, BIOL 482, and NEUR 482.
Prereq: BIOL 215 and BIOL 216.


BIOL 384. Reading and Writing Like an Ecologist (3)
Students usually learn from textbooks, but scientists communicate with each other through journal articles. The purpose of this class is to help you learn to read and write like an ecologist. We will spend our time reading and discussing journal articles about three or four issues in ecology, including papers from both empirical and theoretical perspectives. In addition to the science, we’ll talk about strategies for how to keep reading when you encounter something you don’t understand and what makes a paper well or poorly written. At the end of each section, you will synthesize your ideas into a review article. Your initial paper will be submitted to me as hypothetical journal editor. I will send your paper out for review to two fellow classmates, and I’ll send their comments back to you along with brief comments of my own. As all scientists know, it is virtually unheard of for a journal to accept a paper for publication without revisions. After this peer review, you will revise your papers and resubmit them to me. Your grade will be based on your participation in class discussions, your papers (both drafts) and your work as a reviewer for other students. Recommended preparation: BIOL 216.


SAGES Dept Seminar
BIOL 385. Seminar on Biological Processes in Learning and Cognition (3)

Students will read and discuss research papers on a range of topics relevant to the biological processes that lead to cognition and learning in humans. Sample topics are: cellular and molecular mechanisms of memory; visual sensory detection of images, movement, and color; role of slow neurotransmitters in synaptic plasticity; cortical distribution of cognitive functions such as working memory, decision making, and image analysis; functions of emotion-structures and their role in cognition; brain structures and mechanisms involved in language creation; others. Some papers will be assigned and others will be selected by students. Discussions will focus on the methods used, the experimental results, and the interpretations of significance. Students will work in groups on a semester project to be presented near the end of the semester.
Prereq: BIOL 302.


SAGES Senior Cap
BIOL 387. Seminar in Population Biology (1–3)

Discussion of major themes in population biology, evolution, and ecology, based on critiquing scientific papers. One discussion per week.


BIOL 388. Undergraduate Research (1–3)
Guided laboratory research under the sponsorship of a biology faculty member. May be carried out within the biology department or in associated departments. May be taken only one semester during the student’s academic career. Appropriate forms must be secured in the biology department office. A written report must be approved by the biology sponsor and submitted to the chair of the biology department before credit is granted.


BIOL 388S. Undergraduate Research - SAGES Capstone (3)
Guided laboratory research under the sponsorship of a biology faculty member. May be carried out within the biology department or in associated departments. May be taken only one semester during the student’s academic career. Appropriate forms must be secured in the biology department office. A written report must be approved by the biology sponsor and submitted to the chair of the biology department before credit is granted. A public presentation is required.


SAGES Senior Cap
BIOL 389. Selected Topics (1–3)

Individual library research projects under the guidance of a biology sponsor. A major paper must be submitted and approved before credit is awarded.


BIOL 389S. Selected Topics in Biology--SAGES Capstone (3)
Individual library research projects under the guidance of a biology sponsor. A major paper must be submitted and approved before credit is awarded. A public presentation is required.


SAGES Senior Cap
BIOL 390. Advanced Undergraduate Research (1–3)

Offered on a credit only basis. Students may carry out research in biology or related departments, but a biology sponsor is required. Does not count toward the 30 hours required for a major in biology, but may be counted toward the total number of hours required for graduation. A written report must be submitted to the chair’s office and approved before credit is granted.


BIOL 394. Seminar in Evolutionary Biology (3)
This seminar investigates 20th-century evolutionary theory, especially the Modern Evolutionary synthesis and subsequent expansions of and challenges to that synthesis. The course encompasses the multidisciplinary nature of the science of evolution, demonstrating how disciplinary background influences practitioners’ conceptualizations of pattern and process. This course emphasizes practical writing and research skills, including formulation of testable theses, grant proposal techniques, and the implementation of original research using the facilities on campus and at the Cleveland Museum of Natural History.
Offered as ANTH 394, BIOL 394, GEOL 394, HSTY 394, PHIL 394, ANTH 494, BIOL 494, GEOL 494, HSTY 494, and PHIL 494.


BIOL 395. Research Discussions (1)
This is a seminar course which provides a forum within which students performing undergraduate research, or who have done so previously, can present and discuss their projects. Discussions will cover all aspects of the students’ research projects: background material, experimental design and methods, results and their analysis and conclusions. At the beginning of the semester, each student will briefly outline his or her project and distribute a few key papers to provide background reading for all participants. After this introductory phase, each student will make a presentation of his/her own research. Graded as pass/fail, based upon attendance and participation.
Prereq: BIOL 388. Prereq or coreq: BIOL 390.


BIOL 396. Undergraduate Research in Evolutionary Biology (3)
Students propose and conduct guided research on an aspect of evolutionary biology. The research will be sponsored and supervised by a member of the CASE faculty or other qualified professional. A written report must be submitted to the Evolutionary Biology Steering Committee before credit is granted.
Offered as ANTH 396, BIOL 396, GEOL 396, and PHIL 396.


BIOL 401. Biotechnology Laboratory: Genes and Genetic Engineering (3)
Laboratory training in recombinant DNA techniques. Basic microbiology, growth, and manipulation of bacteriophage, bacteria and yeast. Students isolate and characterize DNA, construct recombinant DNA molecules, and reintroduce them into eukaryotic cells (yeast, plant, animal) to assess their viability and function. Two laboratories per week.
Offered as BIOL 301 and BIOL 401.


BIOL 402. Principles of Neural Science (3)
Lecture/discussion course covering concepts in cell and molecular neuroscience, principles of systems neuroscience as demonstrated in the somatosensory system, and fundamentals of the development of the nervous system. This course will prepare students for upper level Neuroscience courses and is also suitable for students in other programs who desire an understanding of neurosciences. Recommended preparation: CBIO 453.
Offered as BIOL 402 and NEUR 402.


BIOL 407. General Biochemistry (4)
Overview of the macromolecules and small molecules key to all living systems. Topics include: protein structure and function; enzyme mechanisms, kinetics and regulation; membrane structure and function; bioenergetics; hormone action; intermediary metabolism, including pathways and regulation of carbohydrate, lipid, amino acid, and nucleotide biosynthesis and breakdown. One semester of biology is recommended.
Offered as BIOC 307, BIOC 407, and BIOL 407.


BIOL 408. Molecular Biology: Genes and Genetic Engineering (4)
An examination of the flow of genetic information from DNA to RNA to protein. Topics include: nucleic acid structure; mechanisms and control of DNA, RNA, and protein biosynthesis; recombinant DNA; and mRNA processing and modification. Where possible, eukaryotic and prokaryotic systems are compared. Special topics include yeast as a model organism, molecular biology of cancer, and molecular biology of the cell cycle. Current literature is discussed briefly as an introduction to techniques of genetic engineering. Recommended preparation for BIOC 408 and BIOL 408: BIOC 307 or BIOL 214.
Offered as BIOC 308, BIOL 308, BIOC 408, and BIOL 408.
Prereq: BIOL 215 or BIOC 307.


BIOL 415. Quantitative Biology Laboratory (3)
Application of personal computers to biological research. Emphasis on the use of structured programming and flow charting. Use of statistical techniques, analysis of experimental design, modeling strategies. The use of diverse software packages such as spreadsheets, word processing, statistical packages. Continuous interaction with the WWW. Weekly lectures and problem sets posted in the WWW home page. One lecture and one lab per week. During the last 6 weeks of the course, graduate students will have a final project that consists of data analysis and interpretation. Report required for the final project for graduate students.
Offered as BIOL 315 and BIOL 415.


BIOL 416. Fundamental Immunology (4)
Introductory immunology providing an overview of the immune system, including activation, effector mechanisms, and regulation. Topics include antigen-antibody reactions, immunologically important cell surface receptors, cell-cell interactions, cell-mediated immunity, innate versus adaptive immunity, cytokines, and basic molecular biology and signal transduction in B and T lymphocytes, and immunopathology. Three weekly lectures emphasize experimental findings leading to the concepts of modern immunology. An additional recitation hour is required to integrate the core material with experimental data and known immune mediated diseases. Five mandatory 90 minute group problem sets per semester will be administered outside of lecture and recitation meeting times. Graduate students will be graded separately from undergraduates, and 22 percent of the grade will be based on a critical analysis of a recently published, landmark scientific article.
Offered as BIOL 316, BIOL 416, CLBY 416, and PATH 416.
Prereq: Graduate standing.


BIOL 417. Cytokines: Function, Structure, and Signaling (3)
Regulation of immune responses and differentiation of leukocytes is modulated by proteins (cytokines) secreted and/or expressed by both immune and non-immune cells. Course examines the function, expression, gene organization, structure, receptors, and intracellular signaling of cytokines. Topic include regulatory and inflammatory cytokines, colony stimulating factors, chemokines, cytokine and cytokine receptor gene families, intracellular signaling through STAT proteins and tyrosine phosphorylation, clinical potential, and genetic defects. Lecture format using texts, scientific reviews and research articles. Recommended preparation: PATH 416 or equivalent.
Offered as BIOL 417, CLBY 417, and PATH 417.


BIOL 418. Introductory Entomology (4)
The goal of this course is to discover that, for the most part, insects are not aliens from another planet. Class meetings will alternate; with some structured as lectures, while others are laboratory exercises. Sometimes we will meet at the Cleveland Museum of Natural History, or in the field to collect and observe insects. The 50 minute discussion meeting once a week will serve to address questions from both lectures and lab exercises. The students will be required to make a small but comprehensive insect collection. Early in the semester we will focus on collecting the insects, and later, when insects are gone for the winter, we will work to identify the specimens collected earlier. Students will be graded based on exams, class participation and their insect collections. Offered as BIOL 318 and BIOL 418.
Prereq: BIOL 214, and BIOL 215, and BIOL 216.


BIOL 419. Applied Probability and Stochastic Processes for Biology (3)
Applications of probability and stochastic processes to biological systems. Mathematical topics will include: introduction to discrete and continuous probability spaces (including numerical generation of pseudo random samples from specified probability distributions), Markov processes in discrete and continuous time with discrete and continuous sample spaces, point processes including homogeneous and inhomogeneous Poisson processes and Markov chains on graphs, and diffusion processes including Brownian motion and the Ornstein-Uhlenbeck process. Biological topics will be determined by the interests of the students and the instructor. Likely topics include: stochastic ion channels, molecular motors and stochastic ratchets, actin and tubulin polymerization, random walk models for neural spike trains, bacterial chemotaxis, signaling and genetic regulatory networks, and stochastic predator-prey dynamics. The emphasis will be on practical simulation and analysis of stochastic phenomena in biological systems. Numerical methods will be developed using both MATLAB and the R statistical package. Student projects will comprise a major part of the course.
Offered as BIOL 319, EECS 319, MATH 319, BIOL 419, EBME 419, and PHOL 419.


BIOL 426. Genetics (3)
Transmission genetics, nature of mutation, microbial genetics, somatic cell genetics, recombinant DNA techniques and their application to genetics, human genome mapping, plant breeding, transgenic plants and animals, uniparental inheritance, evolution, and quantitative genetics.
Offered as BIOL 326 and BIOL 426.


BIOL 427. Neural Development (3)
Topics include cell commitment, regulation of proliferation and differentiation, cell death and trophic factors, pathfinding by the outgrowing nerve fiber, synapse formation, relationships between center and periphery in development and the role of activity.
Offered as BIOL 427 and NEUR 427.


BIOL 428. Plant Genomics and Proteomics (3)
The development of molecular tools has impacted agriculture as much as human health. The application of new techniques to improve food crops, including the development of genetically modified crops, has also become controversial. This course covers the nature of the plant genome and the role of sequenced-based methods in the identification of the genes. The application of the whole suite of modern molecular tools to understand plant growth and development, with specific examples related agronomically important responses to biotic and abiotic stresses, is included. The impact of the enormous amounts of data generated by these methods and their storage and analysis (bioinformatics) is also considered. Finally, the impact on both the developed and developing world of the generation and release of genetically modified food crops will be covered. Recommended preparation: BIOL 326.
Offered as BIOL 328 and BIOL 428.


BIOL 431. Statistical Methods I (3)
Application of statistical techniques with particular emphasis on problems in the biomedical sciences. Basic probability theory, random variables, and distribution functions. Point and interval estimation, regression, and correlation. Problems whose solution involves using packaged statistical programs. First part of year-long sequence.
Offered as ANAT 431, BIOL 431, EPBI 431, and MPHP 431.


BIOL 432. Statistical Methods II (3)
Methods of analysis of variance, regression and analysis of quantitative data. Emphasis on computer solution of problems drawn from the biomedical sciences. Design of experiments, power of tests, and adequacy of models.
Offered as BIOL 432, EPBI 432, and MPHP 432.
Prereq: EPBI 431 or equivalent.


BIOL 434. Structural Biology (3)
Introduces basic chemical properties of proteins and discusses the physical forces that determine protein structure. Topics include: the elucidation of protein structure by NMR and by X-ray crystallographic methods; the acquisition of protein structures from data bases; and simple modeling experiments based on protein structures.
Offered as BIOC 334, BIOL 334, BIOC 434, and BIOL 434.


BIOL 436. Advanced Aquatic Biology (3)
Physical, chemical, and biological dynamics of lake ecosystems. Factors governing the distribution, abundance, and diversity of freshwater organisms.


BIOL 438. Ichthyology (3)
Biology of fishes. Students will first develop fundamental understanding of the evolutionary history and systematics of fishes to provide a context within which they can address diverse aspects of biology including anatomy, physiology (e.g., in species that change sex; osmoregulation in freshwater vs. saltwater), and behavior (e.g. visual, auditory, chemical, electric communication; social structures). Finally, this knowledge will be used to explore the biodiversity of fishes around the world, with emphasis on Ohio species, by examining preserved specimens in class and making two local field trips to (1) observe captive living specimens, and (2) to observe, capture, and identify wild fishes in their natural habitats. The course will conclude with an analysis of the current global fisheries crisis that has resulted from human activities. Fishes will be used to address broad topics in ecology and evolutionary biology that transcend the pure study of ichthyology. Recommended preparation for BIOL 438: BIOL 216.
Offered as BIOL 338 and BIOL 438.


BIOL 443. Advanced Microbiology (3)
The physiology, genetics, biochemistry, and diversity of microorganisms. The subject will be approached both as a basic biological science that studies the molecular and biochemical processes of cells and viruses, and as an applied science that examines the involvement of microorganisms in human disease as well as in the workings of ecosystems, plant symbioses, and industrial processes. The course is divided into four major areas: bacteria, viruses, medical microbiology, and environmental and applied microbiology. Recommended preparation: BIOL 215 or consent of instructor.


BIOL 448. Human Anatomy and Physiology (4–5)
The anatomy and physiology of the human body. Enrollment is restricted to students majoring in nutrition. Four lectures and one laboratory per week.
Offered as BIOL 348 and BIOL 448.


BIOL 451. Principles of Ecology (3)
This lecture course explores spatial and temporal relationships involving organisms and the environment at individual, population, and community levels. An underlying theme of the course will be neo-Darwinian evolution through natural selection with an emphasis on organismal adaptations to abiotic and biotic environments. Studies and models will illustrate ecological principles, and there will be some emphasis on the applicability of these principles to ecosystem conservation. Students taking the graduate level course will prepare a grant proposal in which hypotheses will be based on some aspect of ecological theory. Recommended preparation: BIOL 216.
Offered as BIOL 351 and BIOL 451.


BIOL 451L. Principles of Ecology Laboratory (2)
Students in this laboratory course will conduct a variety of ecological investigations that are designed to examine relationships involving organisms and the environment at individual, population, and community levels. Descriptive and hypothesis-driven investigations will take place at Case Western Reserve University’s Squire Valleevue Farm, in both field and greenhouse settings. The course is designed to explore as well as test a variety of ecological paradigms. Students taking the graduate level course will prepare a grant proposal in which hypotheses will be based on a select number of lab investigations. This course satisfies a laboratory requirement for biology majors. Recommended preparation or concurrent enrollment in BIOL 351 or BIOL 451.
Offered as BIOL 351L and BIOL 451L.


BIOL 453. Ecophysiology of Global Change (3)
Climate changes and natural selection, prior to human activities, have pre-equipped autotrophic organisms with a suite of adaptations to natural abiotic stress. Whether these adaptations are capable of dealing with current and future levels (magnitude, speed) of non-natural abiotic change is of great interest. This course will examine, in detail, the tight physiological interactions between plants and their variable environment. Emphasizing major aspects of indirect (UV-B, global warming, altered precipitation) and direct (CO2, O3, SOx, NOx) anthropogenic pollution, relevant plant cellular processes, and responses of plants to abiotic stress, will be examined. With this foundation, class discussions will explore scaled collective consequences of global change to plant-dominated terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems.
Offered as BIOL 353 and BIOL 453.


BIOL 455. Coexistence in a Variable Environment (3)
The question of what maintains biodiversity is a central question of ecology. Over the last decade or so, researchers have come to realize that spatial and temporal environmental variability can play a key role in maintaining species coexistence, but the literature in this area is often confusing and can be difficult to synthesize into a unified understanding. Much of the research in this area has mathematical underpinnings, and so the difficulty is compounded when students are uncomfortable reading mathematically-based papers. This class will help students come to terms with an important and growing segment of the ecological literature and will help them learn how to read mathematically-based papers even if they do not use mathematical modeling in their own research.


BIOL 457. Proteins and Nucleic Acids (3)
The goal of this course is to provide a basic working knowledge of protein structure/function and molecular biology. The course begins with a discussion of protein structure and enzyme catalysis followed by protein purification and characterization. The course then addresses concepts relating to the application of modern molecular biology techniques. Students are taught how to clone genes and use these clones in animal and cell-based studies. The overall goal is to provide students with an understanding of proteins and genetic approaches that can be used in experimental work and to facilitate comprehension of the scientific literature.
Offered as BIOL 457 and PHOL 456.


BIOL 458. Animal Behavior (4)
Ultimately the success or failure (i.e., life or death) of any individual animal is determined by its behavior. The ability to locate and capture food, avoid being food, acquiring and defending territory, and successfully passing your genes to the next generation, are all dependent on complex interactions between an animal’s design, environment and behavior. This course will be an integrative approach emphasizing experimental studies of animal behavior. You will be introduced to state-of-the-art approaches to the study of animal behavior, including neural and hormonal mechanisms, genetic and developmental mechanisms and ecological and evolutionary approaches. We will learn to critique examples of current scientific papers, and learn how to conduct observations and experiments with real animals. We will feature guest appearances by the Curator of Research from the Cleveland MetroParks Zoo and visits to working animal behavior research labs here at Case Western Reserve. Group discussions and writing will be emphasized. This course satisfies a laboratory requirement for biology majors.
Offered as BIOL 358 and BIOL 458.


BIOL 462. Advanced Principles of Developmental Biology (3)
Same as BIOL 362 except the required term paper is an NIH-format research proposal. Recommended preparation: BIOL 216.
Offered as ANAT 462 and BIOL 462.


BIOL 463. Experimental Developmental Biology (3)
Laboratory will teach concepts and techniques in developmental biology using wildtype, mutant, and transgenic fluorescent zebrafish. Emphasis will be on the mechanisms that pattern the embryo during development and how these mechanisms are explored using molecular, cellular, and genetic approaches. Term research paper required. Students taking the graduate level course will prepare a grant proposal. One laboratory per week. Limit: 10 students.
Offered as BIOL 363 and BIOL 463.


BIOL 465. Evo-Devo: Evolution of Body Plans (3)
This discussion-based course offers a detailed introduction to Evolutionary Developmental Biology. The field seeks to explain evolutionary events through the mechanisms of Developmental Biology and Genetics. The course is structured into different modules. First we will look at the developmental genetic mechanisms that can cause variation. Then we focus on how alterations of these mechanisms can generate novel structural changes. We will then examine a few areas of active debate, where Evo-Devo is attempting to solve major problems in evolutionary biology. We will conclude with two writing assignments. Students will be required to present, read, and discuss primary literature in each module.
Offered as BIOL 365 and BIOL 465.


BIOL 467. Biorobotics Team Research (3)
Many exciting research opportunities cross disciplinary lines. To participate in such projects, researchers must operate in multi-disciplinary teams. The Biorobotics Team Research course offers a unique capstone opportunity for undergraduate students to utilize skills they developed during their undergraduate experience while acquiring new teaming skills. A group of eight students form a research team under the direction of two faculty leaders. Team members are chosen from appropriate majors through interviews with the faculty. They will research a biological mechanism or principle and develop a robotic device that captures the actions of that mechanism. Although each student will cooperate on the team, they each have a specific role, and must develop a final paper that describes the research generated on their aspect of the project. Students meet for one class period per week and two 2-hour lab periods. Initially students brainstorm ideas and identify the project to be pursued. They then acquire biological data and generate robotic designs. Both are further developed during team meetings and reports. Final oral reports and a demonstration of the robotic device occur in week 15.
Offered as BIOL 377, EMAE 377, BIOL 477, and EMAE 477.


BIOL 468. Topics in Evolutionary Biology (3)
The focus for this course on a special topic of interest in evolutionary biology will vary from one offering to the next. Examples of possible topics include theories of speciation, the evolution of language, the evolution of sex, evolution and biodiversity, molecular evolution. ANAT/ANTH/GEOL/PHIL 467/BIOL 468 will require a longer, more sophisticated term paper, and additional class presentation.
Offered as ANTH 367, BIOL 368, GEOL 367, PHIL 367, ANAT 467, ANTH 467, BIOL 468, GEOL 467, and PHIL 467.


BIOL 473. Introduction to Neurobiology (3)
How nervous systems control behavior. Biophysical, biochemical, and molecular biological properties of nerve cells, their organization into circuitry, and their function within networks. Emphasis on quantitative methods for modeling neurons and networks, and on critical analysis of the contemporary technical literature in the neurosciences. Term paper required for graduate students.
Offered as BIOL 373, BIOL 473, and NEUR 473.


BIOL 474. Neurobiology of Behavior (3)
In this course, students will examine how neurobiologists interested in animal behavior study the linkage between neural circuitry and complex behavior. Various vertebrate and invertebrate systems will be considered. Several exercises will be used in this endeavor. Although some lectures will provide background and context on specific neural systems, the emphasis of the course will be on classroom discussion of specific journal articles. In addition, students will each complete a project in which they will observe some animal behavior and generate both behavioral and neurobiological hypotheses related to it. In lieu of examinations, students will complete three written assignments, including a theoretical grant proposal, a one-page Specific Aims paper related to the project, and a final project paper. These assignments are designed to give each student experience in writing biologically-relevant documents. Classroom discussions will help students understand the content and format of each type document. They will also present their projects orally to the entire class. Recommended preparation: BIOL 216.
Offered as BIOL 374, BIOL 474, and NEUR 474.


BIOL 476. Neurobiology Laboratory (3)
Introduction to the basic laboratory techniques of neurobiology. Intracellular and extracellular recording techniques, forms of synaptic plasticity, patch clamping, immunohistochemistry and confocal microscopy. During the latter weeks of the course students will be given the opportunity to conduct an independent project. One laboratory and one discussion session per week. Recommended preparation for BIOL 476 and NEUR 476: BIOL 216.
Offered as BIOL 376, BIOL 476 and NEUR 476.


BIOL 477. The Dynamics of Adaptive Behavior (3)
Introduction to embodied, situated, and dynamical approaches to the design and analysis of autonomous agents and animals. Topics include recurrent neural networks, coupled neural/body/environment systems, and evolution and analysis of neural circuits. Behavior studied include examples from motor control, perception, learning, and cognition. Recommended preparation: ENGR 131 and MATH 224.
Offered as BIOL 477 and EECS 477.


BIOL 478. Computational Neuroscience (3)
Computer simulations and mathematical analysis of neurons and neural circuits, and the computational properties of nervous systems. Students are taught a range of models for neurons and neural circuits, and are asked to implement and explore the computational and dynamic properties of these models. The course introduces students to dynamical systems theory for the analysis of neurons and neural learning, models of brain systems, and their relationship to artificial and neural networks. Term project required. Students enrolled in MATH 478 will make arrangements with the instructor to attend additional lectures and complete additional assignments addressing mathematical topics related to the course. Recommended preparation: MATH 223 and MATH 224 or BIOL 300 and BIOL 306.
Offered as BIOL 378, COGS 378, MATH 378, BIOL 478, EBME 478, EECS 478, MATH 478 and NEUR 478.


BIOL 479. Seminar in Computational Neuroscience (3)
Readings and discussion in the recent literature on computational neuroscience, adaptive behavior, and other current topics.
Offered as BIOL 479, EBME 479, EECS 479, and NEUR 479.


BIOL 480. Physiology of Organ Systems (3)
This course presents an advanced introduction to the fundamental physiological principles governing the major organ systems in mammals. The function of the nervous, endocrine, digestive, muscle, circulatory, respiratory, and urinary systems are discussed. At the conclusion of the semester, integrative aspects of the major organ systems will be illustrated through consideration of exercise and high altitude physiology.
Offered as BIOL 480 and PHOL 480.


BIOL 482. Drugs, Brain, and Behavior (3)
This course is concerned with the mechanisms underlying neurochemical signaling and the impact of drugs on those mechanisms. The first half of the course emphasizes the fundamental mechanisms underlying intra- and extracellular communication of neurons and the basic principles of how drugs interact with the nervous system. The second half of the course emphasizes understanding the neural substrates of disorders of the nervous system, and the mechanisms underlying the therapeutic effects of drugs at the cellular and behavioral levels. This course will consist of lectures designed to give the student necessary background for understanding these basic principles and class discussion. The class discussion will include viewing video examples of behavioral effects of disorders of the nervous system, and analysis of research papers. The goal of the class discussions is to enhance the critical thinking skills of the student and expose the student to contemporary research techniques.
Offered as BIOL 382, BIOL 482, and NEUR 482.


BIOL 491. Contemporary Biology and Biotechnology for Innovation I (3)
The first half of a two-semester sequence providing an understanding of biology as a basis for successfully launching new high-tech ventures. The course will examine physical limitations to present technologies and the use of biology to identify potential opportunities for new venture creation. The course will provide experience in using biology in both identification of incremental improvements and as the basis for alternative technologies. Case studies will be used to illustrate recent commercially successful (and unsuccessful) biotechnology-based venture creation and will illustrate characteristics for success.


BIOL 492. Contemporary Biology and Biotechnology for Innovation II (3)
Continuation of BIOL 491 with an emphasis on current and prospective opportunities for Biotechnology Entrepreneurship. Longer term opportunities for Biotechnology Entrepreneurship in emerging areas including (but not limited to) applications of DNA sequence information in medicine and agriculture; energy and the environment; biologically-inspired robots. Recommended preparation: BIOL 491 or consent of department.


BIOL 493. Feasibility and Technology Analysis (3)
This course provides the tools scientists need to determine whether a technology is ready for commercialization. These tools include (but are not limited to): financial analysis, market analysis, industry analysis, technology analysis, intellectual property protection, the entrepreneurial process and culture, an introduction to entrepreneurial strategy and new venture financing. Deliverables will include a technology feasibility analysis on a possible application in the student’s scientific area.
Offered as BIOL 493, CHEM 493, and PHYS 493.


BIOL 494. Seminar in Evolutionary Biology (3)
This seminar investigates 20th-century evolutionary theory, especially the Modern Evolutionary synthesis and subsequent expansions of and challenges to that synthesis. The course encompasses the multidisciplinary nature of the science of evolution, demonstrating how disciplinary background influences practitioners’ conceptualizations of pattern and process. This course emphasizes practical writing and research skills, including formulation of testable theses, grant proposal techniques, and the implementation of original research using the facilities on campus and at the Cleveland Museum of Natural History.
Offered as ANTH 394, BIOL 394, GEOL 394, HSTY 394, PHIL 394, ANTH 494, BIOL 494, GEOL 494, HSTY 494, and PHIL 494.


BIOL 530. Seminar in the Rhizosphere (1–2)
The rhizosphere us the dynamic zone of soil that surrounds plant roots. Chemical and physical processes in the rhizospere are controlled by the interaction between plants and a diverse soil microflora. This graduate-level seminar course will explore these processes and interactions as they affect nutrient cycling and the fertility of natural systems. Each week one student will present and lead the discussion on a seminal or current key scientific article dealing with one of the following general topics: Rhizosphere biogeochemistry, diversity and function of the rhizosphere biota, interaction of organisms inhabiting the rhizosphere, influence of rhizospheric processes in plant fitness and ecosystem function.


BIOL 531. Seminar in Experimental Ecology (1–3)


BIOL 536. Seminar in Great Lakes Issues (1–3)

Selected topics related to Great Lakes basin studies: research problems, scientific processes, classic research papers, current events, policy issues, and legislative initiatives. Course content will vary depending on interests of students and faculty.
Offered as BIOL 536 and GEOL 536.


BIOL 541. Topics in Integrative Biology (1–3)
The goal of this course is to encourage graduate students to think about any question in biology from a broad-based perspective, focusing on the integration of three major themes: 1) evolution and its effects, 2) the cellular basis of life, and 3) systems level control. Each semester, the course may focus on a different topic, but it will be examined from the perspectives of these three focus areas. One faculty instructor with strength in each of these areas will present a few introductory lectures to provide the class with a basic understanding of the topic as it is studied in their area. Then, each student will research a subject covered that semester and develop and present this subject to the class with an explicit evolutionary, cellular or systems level approach. Students will be graded on the quality of their presentations and the overall level of their participation in class.


BIOL 550C. Seminar: Experimental Biology (1–3)


BIOL 552. Seminar in Developmental Biology (1–3)

Topics pertaining to the field of development, such as regeneration and induction, which address both vertebrate and invertebrate forms.


BIOL 561. Statistical Methods for Scientific Research (3)
This course will introduce students to traditional and novel statistical methods useful for experimental scientists. The emphasis will be on understanding theory and techniques that are used in research. We shall consider problems from astronomy, biology and particle-astro physics. The course will also cover topics of interest to engineers. Current collaborative research problems of the instructor will motivate some of the advanced statistical techniques. Topics to be covered include: Measuring uncertainty and probability distributions (low and high dimensional); point and interval estimation; curve fitting; likelihood and score type tests required for an experiment; posterior probabilities; dealing with small samples (which arise in search experiments); over- and under-coverage using confidence belts; and Monte Carlo simulation methods for planning experiments and evaluating the statistical significance of the results. “GGobi” and “R” open source software will be used for visualization (via dynamic and interactive graphics) and exploring high-dimensional data.
Offered as BIOL 561 and PHYS 561.


BIOL 569. Advanced Seminar in Developmental Biology (1–3)
Participants prepare and present seminars on subjects of contemporary interest and importance in developmental biology.


BIOL 599. Advanced Independent Study for Graduate Students (1–3)
Independent study of advanced topics in biology under the supervision of a biology faculty member. Registration requires submission of a proposal for a project or study and approval of the department.


BIOL 601. Research (1–9)


BIOL 651. Thesis M.S. (1–9)


BIOL 701. Dissertation Ph.D. (1–9)

Prereq: Predoctoral research consent or advanced to Ph.D. candidacy milestone.


BIOL 801. Biotechnology Workshop (2)
The course will cover the topics of DNA structure and isolation, restriction enzyme digests, the fractionation of DNA by gel electrophoresis, southern blotting, hybridization and the nature of restriction fragment length polymorphisms, the cloning of DNA in various vectors and the identification of recombinant molecules, the use of the polymerase chain reaction to amplify DNA and its use in DNA fingerprinting. The ethical issues arising from the implementation of recombinant DNA technology and the advances in the human genome project will also form part of the course. The laboratory exercises include DNA extraction from pea seeds, digestion with restriction enzymes and gel electrophoresis followed by southern blotting and hybridization. A fragment of bacteriophage lambda will be cloned in a plasmid vector and recombinant molecules isolated. A fingerprint of the participants’ own DNA will be developed using the polymerase chain reaction.


BIOL 802. Terrestrial and Aquatic Ecology for High School Teachers (2)
A 2-week summer ecology course to take place at the Case Westerm Reserve Farm in Hunting Valley, OH. It is designed for teachers of grades 6-12 in both public and private schools who have an interest in current ecological problems. Participants will learn field sampling techniques and identification of a diversity of living organisms, both plant and animal. They will study the distribution and abundance of terrestrial and aquatic organisms. Field work in the varied habitats of Case Western Reserve University Farm will be an integral part of the program. Data will be analyzed and interpreted using personal computers. Participants will receive supplies, field guides, and detailed laboratory exercises that are designed specifically for the classroom. The course will be offered during the last two weeks of June and is limited to 12 participants.


BIOL 803. Autonomous Robotics for High School Science Teachers (2)
A 2-week, 10-day summer course in designing, building, and programming computer-controlled robots which are able to function autonomously in complex, real-world environments. LEGO Technics components are used for structures and gear trains. Various mechanical and photodetection sensors provide sensory feedback. A microcontroller board programmed in C is used for sensory integration and behavioral control. Participants work in groups of two per workstation. Detailed written documentation and laboratory exercises will be provided. Topics include: mechanical design with LEGO, sensors and feedback control, C programming, multi-tasking control strategies, and an end-of-course robot competition. Eligibility: high school (grades 9-12) science teachers; those in the biological sciences preferred. Limit 10.