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an style="font-family:times new roman;font-size:13px;">              Other essays in the volume tackle the issue of “DP agency.” Did Jewish refugees act autonomously or did they remain tools and subjects of outside powers? The examination of Zionist sympathies among Holocaust survivors is a good case in point. According to Hagit Lavsky, who studied the political organization of Jewish DPs in Bergen-Belsen, the Zionist leanings of the Surviving Remnant were “neither a manipulative effort by external forces nor a constructed ideology” (p. 246). A spontaneous creation born in the context of displacement and mourning, DP Zionism was above all functional and therapeutic. For the youthful segment of the Jewish DP population, aptly investigated by Avinoam J. Patt, Zionist youth movements and prototype kibbutzim in the German countryside provided warmth, brotherhood, and a sense of home. These feelings were nonetheless rapidly converted into nascent Israeli patriotism, as Patt’s concluding lines indicate: “The Zionist movement, the Yishuv, and indeed the Fatherland was calling, and in the DP camps the youth were expected to answer this call” (p.124).

              Not all Jewish DPs ended their journey in Israel, however. When the U.S. Congress passed the DP Act in June 1948, and even more so when it liberalized its initial provisions in 1950, Holocaust survivors arrived on American shores (140,000 Jewish DPs had settled in the United States by 1954). Yet as Beth B. Cohen shows, these officially labeled “New Americans” faced an American Jewish community not always attuned to their past sufferings, in deep contrast with the central place occupied by the Holocaust in contemporary Jewish-American identity. “We are Here” addresses many other issues, such as the deeply-rooted stereotypes of Jews as criminals and deviants in post-war German society (Michael Berkowitz and Suzanne Brown-Fleming) or the process of identity formation in the DP camps (Laura J. Hilton). Overall, the volume introduces, in a succinct yet sophisticated way, the most recent scholarship on Jewish displaced persons in postwar Germany. It will remain an invaluable tool for courses in Holocaust and post-1945 European history.

G. Daniel Cohen

Department of History

Rice University